Rotating stall waves that travel against the direction of rotor rotation are reported for the first time and a new, low-order analytical approach to model centrifugal compressor stability is introduced. The model is capable of dealing with unsteady radially swirling flows and the dynamic effects of impeller-diffuser component interaction as it occurs in centrifugal compression systems. A simple coupling criterion is developed from first principles to explain the interaction mechanism important for system stability. The model findings together with experimental data explain the mechanism for first-ever observed backward traveling rotating stall in centrifugal compressors with vaned diffusers. Based on the low-order model predictions, an air injection scheme between the impeller and the vaned diffuser is designed for the NASA Glenn CC3 high-speed centrifugal compressor. The steady air injection experiments show an increase of 25% in surge-margin with an injection mass flow of 0.5% of the compressor mass flow. In addition, it is experimentally demonstrated that this injection scheme is robust to impeller tip-clearance effects and that a reduced number of injectors can be applied for similar gains in surge-margin. The results presented in this paper firmly establish the connection between the experimentally observed dynamic phenomena in the NASA CC3 centrifugal compressor and a first principles based coupling criterion. In addition, guidelines are given for the design of centrifugal compressors with enhanced stability. Winner of the “Best Paper Award,” Turbomachinery Committee
Backward Traveling Rotating Stall Waves in Centrifugal Compressors
Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS for publication in the ASME JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Paper presented at the International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 3–6, 2002; Paper No. 2002-GT-30379. Manuscript received by IGTI, December 2001, final revision, March 2002. Associate Editor: E. Benvenuti.
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Spakovszky, Z. S. (March 26, 2004). "Backward Traveling Rotating Stall Waves in Centrifugal Compressors ." ASME. J. Turbomach. January 2004; 126(1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1643382
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