To achieve thermoplastics-based composites with high tribological performances, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and graphite (Gr) were incorporated separately to a polyamide 66 (PA66) matrix. Two different development methodologies of composites were used. The morphological features and the micro-mechanical properties of composites were investigated to stress the influence of the filler surface treatment and its dispersion. The friction coefficient was evaluated using a ball on a flat micro-tribometer. The wear mechanisms were also characterized. The best tribological performance was exhibited by 10 wt% of graphite. The surface treatment of the filler inclusions by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMPTES) showed an improvement in the morphological aspects of adhesion at the filler/matrix interface.