Abstract

Pressure vessels and their components are commonly designed with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. One of the requirements when pursuing the design by analysis route is to design these equipment against ductile local failure criterion provided in the codes. However, the ductile local failure criterion in the ASME codes only accounts for the stress triaxiality (T) as a stress state measure. Recent work has shown that ductile failure highly depends on the stress state characterized by both T and the Lode parameter L, which is related to the third deviatoric stress invariant. In this study, the effect of stress state characterized by both T and L is investigated for six different steel grades with different material strength levels. To establish the ductile failure loci for the six steel grades with respect to T and L, experiments were conducted on two different specimen geometries. The L parameter is controlled by the specimen configuration, where the round notched bar specimen corresponds to axisymmetric tensile conditions (L = −1) and the flat notched specimen corresponds to plane strain loading conditions (L = 0), whereas T is controlled by introducing a notch at the center of the specimens. A Lode sensitivity parameter (LS) is defined based on the experimental results and revealed that the steel grades with ultimate strength higher than a certain threshold value (450 MPa) exhibit sensitivity to the Lode parameter. The Lode sensitivity was quantified, and the results showed that the LS increases with increase in the ultimate strength of the steel grade. The results were incorporated to enhance the original ASME local failure criterion by accounting for T, L, and LS to accurately assess ductile failure in high-strength steels. The application of the enhanced failure locus in a design analysis of a pressure vessel made of a high-strength steel grade is demonstrated, which showed that the original ASME criterion, as compared to the enhanced criterion in this study, is not capable of predicting ductile failure and hence rendering a rather nonconservative design. It is concluded that the enhanced local failure criterion is recommended to be used for the design of pressure vessels and their components made of steel grades with an ultimate strength higher than the threshold value.

References

1.
McClintock
,
F.
,
1968
, “
A Criterion for Ductile Fracture by the Growth of Holes
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
35
(
2
), pp.
363
371
.10.1115/1.3601204
2.
Rice
,
J. R.
, and
Tracey
,
D. M.
,
1969
, “
On the Ductile Enlargement of Voids in Triaxial Stress Fields
,”
J. Mech. Phys. Solids
,
17
(
3
), pp.
201
217
.10.1016/0022-5096(69)90033-7
3.
Bao
,
Y.
, and
Wierzbicki
,
T.
,
2004
, “
A Comparative Study on Various Ductile Crack Formation Criteria
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
126
(
3
), pp.
314
324
.10.1115/1.1755244
4.
Bao
,
Y.
, and
Wierzbicki
,
T.
,
2004
, “
On Fracture Locus in the Equivalent Strain and Stress Triaxiality Space
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
46
(
1
), pp.
81
98
.10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2004.02.006
5.
Barsoum
,
I.
, and
Faleskog
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Rupture Mechanisms in Combined Tension and Shear-Experiments
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
44
(
6
), pp.
1768
1786
.10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2006.09.031
6.
Faleskog
,
J.
, and
Barsoum
,
I.
,
2013
, “
Tension-Torsion Fracture Experiments—Part I: Experiments and a Procedure to Evaluate the Equivalent Plastic Strain
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
50
(
25–26
), pp.
4241
4257
.10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.08.029
7.
Dunand
,
M.
, and
Mohr
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Optimized Butterfly Specimen for the Fracture Testing of Sheet Materials Under Combined Normal and Shear Loading
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
78
(
17
), pp.
2919
2934
.10.1016/j.engfracmech.2011.08.008
8.
Barsoum
,
I.
, and
Al-Khaled
,
M. A.
,
2018
, “
The Sensitivity to the Lode Parameter in Ductile Failure of Tubular Steel Grades
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
140
(
3
), p.
031402
.10.1115/1.4039392
9.
Barsoum
,
I.
,
Faleskog
,
J.
, and
Pingle
,
S.
,
2012
, “
The Effect of Stress State on Ductility in the Moderate Stress Triaxiality Regime of Medium and High Strength Steels
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
65
(
1
), pp.
203
212
.10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2012.10.003
10.
Gao
,
X.
,
Zhang
,
T.
,
Hayden
,
M.
, and
Roe
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Effects of the Stress State on Plasticity and Ductile Failure of an Aluminum 5083 Alloy
,”
Int. J. Plasticity
,
25
(
12
), pp.
2366
2382
.10.1016/j.ijplas.2009.03.006
11.
Qian
,
L.-Y.
,
Fang
,
G.
,
Zeng
,
P.
, and
Wang
,
Q.
,
2015
, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigations Into the Ductile Fracture During the Forming of Flat-Rolled 5083-O Aluminum Alloy Sheet
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
220
, pp.
264
275
.10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.01.031
12.
Al-Khaled
,
M. A.
, and
Barsoum
,
I.
,
2018
, “
New Ring Specimen Geometries for Determining the Failure Locus of Tubulars
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
140
(
1
), pp.
1
13
.10.1115/1.4038311
13.
ASME
,
2011
, “
VIII Division 2: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
,” ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
14.
Swedish Steel AB
, 2020, “SSAB,” Swedish Steel AB, Oxelösund, Sweden, accessed Aug. 25, 2020, https://www.ssab.com/
15.
ASTM
,
2002
, “
Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No.
ASTM A370-02
.10.1520/A0370-02
16.
Swift
,
H.
,
1952
, “
Plastic Instability Under Plane Stress
,”
J. Mech. Phys. Solids
,
1
(
1
), pp.
1
18
.10.1016/0022-5096(52)90002-1
18.
Bridgman
,
P. W.
,
1952
,
Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
19.
ASTM
,
1999
, “
Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys
,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No.
ASTM E 407–99
.10.1520/E0407-99
20.
Aliya
,
D.
, and
Lampman
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Physical Metallurgy Concepts in Interpretation of Microstructures
,”
Metallography and Microstructures
, Vol.
9
,
ASM International
, Cleveland, OH, pp.
44
70
.
21.
Bramfitt
,
B. L.
, and
Lawrence
,
S. J.
,
2004
, “
Metallography and Microstructures of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
,”
Metallography and Microstructures
, Vol.
9
,
ASM International
, Cleveland, OH, pp.
608
626
.
22.
Dassault Systèmes, 2014, “ABAQUS Standard User’s Manual,” Version 6.13–4, Dassault Systèmes Simulia, Velizy-Villacoublay, France.
23.
Barsoum
,
I.
, and
Al Ali
,
K. F.
,
2015
, “
A Procedure to Determine the Tangential True Stress-Strain Behavior of Pipes
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
128
, pp.
59
68
.10.1016/j.ijpvp.2014.11.002
24.
Tinius and Olsen
,
2018
, “
Video Extensometer
,” Tinius & Olsen, Surrey, England, accessed May 23, 2020, https://www.tiniusolsen.com/
25.
Xue
,
Z.
,
Faleskog
,
J.
, and
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
,
2013
, “
Tension-Torsion Fracture Experiments—Part II: Simulations With the Extended Gurson Model and a Ductile Fracture Criterion Beased on Plastic Strain
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
50
(
25–26
), pp.
4258
4269
.10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.08.028
26.
Pereira
,
J.
,
de Jesus
,
A.
, and
Fernandes
,
A.
,
2016
, “
A New Ultra-Low Cycle Fatigue Model Applied to the X60 Piping Steel
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
,
93
, pp.
201
213
.10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.08.017
27.
Bai
,
Y.
,
Teng
,
X.
, and
Wierzbicki
,
T.
,
2009
, “
On the Application of Stress Triaxiality Formula for Plane Strain Fracture Testing
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
131
(
2
), p.
021002
.10.1115/1.3078390
28.
ASME
,
2013
, “
Section VIII–Division 2 Example Problem Manual (ASME PTB-3)
,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
29.
ASME
,
2013
, “
Section II—Materials Part D Properties (Metric)
,” ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
You do not currently have access to this content.