The paper examines the nonlinear elastic-plastic response of internally pressurized 90 deg pipe elbows under in-plane and out-of-plane bending. Nonlinear shell elements from a general-purpose finite element program are employed to model the inelastic response of steel elbows and the adjacent straight parts. The numerical results are successfully compared with real-scale experimental measurements. The paper also presents a parametric study, aimed at investigating the effects of diameter-to-thickness ratio and moderate pressure levels on the ultimate bending capacity of 90 deg elbows, focusing on the failure mode (local buckling or cross-sectional flattening) and the maximum bending moment. Special attention is given to the response of 90 deg elbows under out-of-plane bending moments.
Ultimate Bending Capacity and Buckling of Pressurized 90 deg Steel Elbows
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Karamanos, S. A., Tsouvalas, D., and Gresnigt, A. M. (July 7, 2005). "Ultimate Bending Capacity and Buckling of Pressurized 90 deg Steel Elbows." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. August 2006; 128(3): 348–356. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2217967
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