The paper examines the nonlinear elastic-plastic response of internally pressurized 90 deg pipe elbows under in-plane and out-of-plane bending. Nonlinear shell elements from a general-purpose finite element program are employed to model the inelastic response of steel elbows and the adjacent straight parts. The numerical results are successfully compared with real-scale experimental measurements. The paper also presents a parametric study, aimed at investigating the effects of diameter-to-thickness ratio and moderate pressure levels on the ultimate bending capacity of 90 deg elbows, focusing on the failure mode (local buckling or cross-sectional flattening) and the maximum bending moment. Special attention is given to the response of 90 deg elbows under out-of-plane bending moments.
Ultimate Bending Capacity and Buckling of Pressurized 90 deg Steel Elbows
Karamanos, S. A., Tsouvalas, D., and Gresnigt, A. M. (July 7, 2005). "Ultimate Bending Capacity and Buckling of Pressurized 90 deg Steel Elbows." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. August 2006; 128(3): 348–356. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2217967
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