Abstract

This paper gives a detailed description of the main hydrodynamic characteristics of different types of green water events occurring on a fixed structure in a series of experiments. High-speed video, at 250 fps, was used to capture the flow details from regular waves produced inside a wave flume. The green water events were classified according to their type and the results of the evaluation from the apparent and effective interaction features. The air cavities in the plunging-dam-break (PDB)-type events were almost spherical for longer waves. PDB with large, elliptical cavities, and hammer-fist (HF)-type events occurred with steeper waves. The highest wave front and bow run-up velocities were found in PDB and HF events, respectively. The size of the cavities in PDB events increases and becomes more elliptical for higher bow run-up velocities. The results of these experiments show that not all events can be treated in the same way as the dam-break (DB)-type events when designing structures or implementing models, as not all interactions with the deck happen when the shipping water crosses the bow edge.

References

References
1.
Greco
,
M.
,
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
, and
Landrini
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Shipping of Water on a Two-Dimensional Structure
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
525
, pp.
309
332
. 10.1017/S0022112004002691
2.
Greco
,
M.
,
Colicchio
,
G.
, and
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
,
2007
, “
Shipping of Water on a Two-Dimensional Structure. Part 2
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
581
, pp.
371
399
. 10.1017/S002211200700568X
3.
Goda
,
K.
, and
Miyamoto
,
T.
,
1976
, “
A Study of Shipping Water Pressure on Deck by Two Dimensional Ship Model Tests
,”
J. Soc. Nav. Archit. Japan
,
1976
(
140
), pp.
16
22
. 10.2534/jjasnaoe1968.1976.140_16
4.
Buchner
,
B.
,
1995
, “
On the Impact of Green Water Loading
,”
The Sixth International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Mobile Units, PRADS 1995
,
Seoul, South Korea
,
Sept. 17–22
.
5.
Buchner
,
B.
,
1995
, “
On the Impact of Green Water Loading on Ship and Offshore Unit Design
,”
Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ship and Mobile Units
,
Seoul, South Korea
,
Sept. 17–22
, pp.
430
443
.
6.
Buchner
,
B.
,
1999
, “
Green Water From the Side of an Weathervaning FPSO
,”
Proceedings of OMAE99, 18th International Conference
,
St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada
,
July 11–16
, pp.
1
11
.
7.
Lee
,
G. N.
,
Jung
,
K. H.
,
Malenica
,
S.
,
Chung
,
Y. S.
,
Suh
,
S. B.
,
Kim
,
M. S.
, and
Choi
,
Y. H.
,
2020
, “
Experimental Study on Flow Kinematics and Pressure Distribution of Green Water on a Rectangular Structure
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
195
, p.
106649
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.106649
8.
Ryu
,
Y.
,
Chang
,
K. A.
, and
Mercier
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Runup and Green Water Velocities Due to Breaking Wave Impinging and Overtopping
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
43
(
4
), pp.
555
567
. 10.1007/s00348-007-0332-0
9.
Song
,
Y. K.
,
Chang
,
K. A.
,
Ariyarathne
,
K.
, and
Mercier
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Surface Velocity and Impact Pressure of Green Water Flow on a Fixed Model Structure in a Large Wave Basin
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
104
, pp.
40
51
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.04.085
10.
Silva
,
D. F. C.
,
Esperança
,
P. T. T.
, and
Coutinho
,
A. L. G. A.
,
2017
, “
Green Water Loads on FPSOs Exposed to Beam and Quartering Seas, Part II: CFD Simulations
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
140
, pp.
434
452
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2016.11.008
11.
Lee
,
H. H.
,
Lim
,
H. J.
, and
Rhee
,
S. H.
,
2012
, “
Experimental Investigation of Green Water on Deck for a CFD Validation Database
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
42
, pp.
47
60
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2011.12.026
12.
Hernández-Fontes
,
J. v.
,
Vitola
,
M. A.
,
Esperança
,
P. d. T. T.
, and
Sphaier
,
S. H.
,
2019
, “
Assessing Shipping Water Vertical Loads on a Fixed Structure by Convolution Model and Wet Dam-Break Tests
,”
Appl. Ocean Res.
,
82
(
February 2018
), pp.
63
73
. 10.1016/j.apor.2018.10.022
13.
Greco
,
M.
,
2001
, “
A Two-Dimensional Study of Green-Water Loading
,”
PhD Thesis, Department of Marine Hydrodynamics, Faculty of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
, p.
162
.
14.
Zhang
,
X.
,
Draper
,
S.
,
Wolgamot
,
H.
,
Zhao
,
W.
, and
Cheng
,
L.
,
2019
, “
Eliciting Features of 2D Greenwater Overtopping of a Fixed Box Using Modified Dam Break Models
,”
Appl. Ocean Res.
,
84
(
January
), pp.
74
91
. 10.1016/j.apor.2019.01.006
15.
Nielsen
,
K. B.
, and
Mayer
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Numerical Prediction of Green Water Incidents
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
31
(
3–4
), pp.
363
399
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2003.06.001
16.
van Veer
,
R.
, and
Boorsma
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Towards an Improved Understanding of Green Water Exceedance
,”
Proceedings of the ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2016
,
Busan, South Korea
,
June 19–24
, pp.
1
10
.
17.
Hernández-Fontes
,
J. v.
,
Vitola
,
M. A.
,
Silva
,
M. C.
,
Esperança
,
P. d. T. T.
, and
Sphaier
,
S. H.
,
2018
, “
On the Generation of Isolated Green Water Events Using Wet Dam-Break
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
140
(
5
), p.
051101
. 10.1115/1.4040050
18.
Hernández-Fontes
,
J. v.
,
Vitola
,
M. A.
,
Esperança
,
P. T. T.
,
Sphaier
,
S. H.
, and
Silva
,
R.
,
2020
, “
Patterns and Vertical Loads in Water Shipping in Systematic Wet Dam-Break Experiments
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
197
, p.
106891
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.106891
19.
Stoker
,
J. J.
,
1957
,
Water Waves: Pure and Applied Mathematics
,
John Wiley & Sons Inc.
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
20.
Hu
,
Z.
,
Xue
,
H.
,
Tang
,
W.
, and
Zhang
,
X.
,
2015
, “
A Combined Wave-Dam-Breaking Model for Rogue Wave Overtopping
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
104
, pp.
77
88
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.05.009
21.
Hernández-Fontes
,
J. v.
,
Vitola
,
M. A.
,
Esperança
,
P. d. T. T.
, and
Sphaier
,
S. H.
,
2019
, “
Analytical Convolution Model for Shipping Water Evolution on a Fixed Structure
,”
Appl. Ocean Res.
,
82
, pp.
415
429
. 10.1016/j.apor.2018.11.005
22.
Sanchez-Mondragon
,
J.
,
Hernández-Fontes
,
J. V.
,
Vázquez-Hernández
,
A. O.
, and
Esperança
,
P. T. T.
,
2020
, “
Wet Dam-Break Simulation Using the SPS-LES Turbulent Contribution on the WCMPS Method to Evaluate Green Water Events
,”
Comput. Part. Mech.
,
7
, pp.
405
427
.
23.
Yan
,
B.
,
Bai
,
W.
,
Qian
,
L.
, and
Ma
,
Z.
,
2018
, “
Study on Hydro-Kinematic Characteristics of Green Water Over Different Fixed Decks Using Immersed Boundary Method
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
164
, pp.
74
86
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.06.037
24.
Wang
,
S.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Woo
,
W. L.
, and
Seow
,
T. H.
,
2017
, “
Study on Green Water Prediction for FPSOs by a Practical Numerical Approach
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
143
, pp.
88
96
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2017.07.052
25.
FASTEC-IMAGING
,
2020
, “
HiSpec 1 Innovative Low-Light High-Speed Camera
” [Online], https://www.fastecimaging.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/hispec1.pdf, Accessed July 19, 2020.
26.
imagej
,
2020
, “
ImageJ: Image Processing and Analysis in Java
” [Online], https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/, Accessed July 21, 2020.
27.
Hernández
,
I. D.
,
Hernández-Fontes
,
J. v.
,
Vitola
,
M. A.
,
Silva
,
M. C.
, and
Esperança
,
P. T. T.
,
2018
, “
Water Elevation Measurements Using Binary Image Analysis for 2D Hydrodynamic Experiments
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
157
, pp.
325
338
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.03.063
28.
IES
,
2011
, “
IES 4422 LED Head
” [Online], http://www.ies-elektronikentwicklung.de/bilder/SF4422.pdf, Accessed July 21, 2020.
29.
Hernández-Fontes
,
J. v.
,
Esperança
,
P. d. T. T.
,
Graniel
,
J. F. B.
,
Sphaier
,
S. H.
, and
Silva
,
R.
,
2019
, “
Green Water on a Fixed Structure Due to Incident Bores: Guidelines and Database for Model Validations Regarding Flow Evolution
,”
Water
,
11
(
12
), p.
2584
. 10.3390/w11122584
30.
Colicchio
,
G.
,
Greco
,
M.
, and
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
,
2011
, “
Domain-Decomposition Strategy for Marine Applications With Cavity Entrapments
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
27
(
4
), pp.
567
585
. 10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2011.03.001
You do not currently have access to this content.