Rapid advancements in 3D printing that have fueled the development of advanced manufacturing applications are well-known. New printing techniques and their ability to print objects from a growing variety of materials such as plastics, metals, ceramics, and more allow developers and manufacturers to speed prototyping, streamline supply chains, and produce complex designs not previously possible. Even so, there are limits to what can be done because the materials are rigid. This article explores if 4D printing, the layer-by-layer manufacturing of parts that can change over time, is the next step.

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