A new unified visco-plastic constitutive model for the 60 Sn-40 Pb alloy used in solder joints of surface-mount IC packages and semiconductor devices is proposed. The model accounts for the measured stress-dependence of the activation energy and for the strong Bauschinger effect exhibited by the solder. The latter is represented by a back stress state variable which, in turn, evolves according to a hardening-recovery equation. Based on the observed hardening behavior, it is assumed that the isotropic resistance to plastic flow does not evolve within the deformation range covered in this study (ε< 3 percent). The deformation phenomena associated with the solder’s monotonic and steady-state cyclic responses are accurately predicted for −55°C≦T≦150°C and 8 x 10−2 s−1 ≦ ε ≦ 8 x 10−5 s−1. The model also predicts well the overall trend of steady-state creep behavior. The constitutive model is formulated within a continuum mechanics framework and is therefore well suited for implementation into finite element or other structural codes.
A Visco-Plastic Constitutive Model for 60/40 Tin-Lead Solder Used in IC Package Joints
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Busso, E. P., Kitano, M., and Kumazawa, T. (July 1, 1992). "A Visco-Plastic Constitutive Model for 60/40 Tin-Lead Solder Used in IC Package Joints." ASME. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. July 1992; 114(3): 331–337. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2904181
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