Aiming at the shortcomings of the existing fluid polishing methods such as low abrasive utilization rate and high equipment energy consumption, a new method of pulsating air jet polishing (PAJP) is proposed in this article. In this article, the force on the abrasive in the turbulent state is analyzed based on the micro model of near-wall flow field. Based on the realizable k-ɛ turbulence model and mixture multiphase model, the gas–liquid–solid flow field is simulated numerically. The numerical simulation results reveal the variation law of the velocity field and the pressure field inside the flow field, and the accuracy of the simulation model has been verified by polishing experiments. The effects of jet pressure, jet angle, jet distance, and abrasive concentration on the removal depth and surface roughness of titanium alloys are analyzed by a combination of simulation and experiment, and the process parameters of PAJP are optimized.