Variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) are the main part of the MASCOT (mobile asteroid surface SCOuT) lander thermal control system (TCS). They provide variable conductivity by utilizing the heat transfer limitations. This allows the heat pipes to act as thermal switches without additional constructive elements, thus leveraging the simple and compact design of conventional heat pipes. Two cylindrical methanol–copper heat pipes with shell length of 0.482 m and 0.438 m and external diameter of 0.006 m, having copper discrete metal fiber wick and copper shell were constructed and verified in the temperature range between −75 and +60 °C. The purpose is to apply this design into the MASCOT TCS and to investigate the heat pipes' regulative characteristics and heat transfer limitations. VCHPs show a change of thermal resistivity from 70 K/W at a heat sink temperature of −60 °C, to 0.8 K/W at a heat sink temperature of +60 °C; with an obtained maximal heat transfer rate of 5 W and 16 W, respectively. It is found that the switching effect of the heat pipes is governed by the sonic velocity limitation, the saturation vapor pressure of the working fluid, and the maximal capillary pressure of the wick. The operation of the heat pipes as the part of the TCS has confirmed their variable thermal properties.