A two-dimensional model is developed for the modulated internal airflow, due to walking, in the gap between clothing and skin surface in the presence of clothing apertures. The normal airflow renewing the air layer through the fabric is modeled using the Ghali et al. three-node fabric ventilation model with corrected heat and moisture transport coefficients within the fabric voids to include the diffusion-dominated transport processes in the fabric at low normal flow rates that occur near the open aperture. The parallel flow is induced by a periodic pressure difference between environmental pressure at the aperture of the clothing system and trapped air layer pressure. The parallel flow in the trapped air layer is assumed to be locally governed by the Womersley solution of time-periodic laminar flow in a plane channel. The two-dimensional (2D) model that uses, in the parallel direction, the Womersley flow of the trapped air layer has predicted significantly lower flow rates than a model based on an inertia-free quasi-steady Poisueille flow model (valid only at low ventilation frequencies). In addition, the model predicted lower sensible and latent heat losses from the sweating skin in the presence of open apertures in the clothing system. The percentage drop in total heat loss due to open aperture is 7.52%, and 2.63%, at ventilation frequencies of 25, and 35 revolution per minute, respectively. The reported results showed that under walking conditions, a permeable clothing system with an open aperture reduced heat loss from the skin when compared to a normal ventilation model (closed aperture). These results were consistent with previously published empirical data of Lotens and Danielsson on air layer resistance for open and closed apertures in high air permeable fabrics.
Modulated Air Layer Heat and Moisture Transport by Ventilation and Diffusion From Clothing With Open Aperture
Manuscript received January 9, 2004; revision received December 13, 2004. Review conducted by: B. Farouk.
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Ghaddar, N., Ghali, K., and Harathani, J. (March 24, 2005). "Modulated Air Layer Heat and Moisture Transport by Ventilation and Diffusion From Clothing With Open Aperture." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. March 2005; 127(3): 287–297. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1857949
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