The nonlinear dynamics of turbine generator shaft trains for power generation are investigated in this paper. Realistic models of rotors, pedestals, and nonlinear bearings of partial arc and lemon bore configuration are implemented to compose a nonlinear set of differential equations for autonomous (balanced) and nonautonomous (unbalanced—per ISO) cases. The solution branches of the dynamic system are evaluated with the pseudo-arc length continuation programed by the authors, and the respective limit cycles are evaluated by an orthogonal collocation method and investigated on their stability properties and quality of motion for the respective key design parameters for the rotor dynamic design of such systems, namely, bearing profile and respective pad length, preload and offset, pedestal stiffness and elevation (misalignment), and rotor slenderness. Model order reduction is applied to the finite element rotor model and the reduced system is validated in terms of unbalanced response and stability characteristics. The main conclusion of the current investigation is that the system has the potential to develop instabilities at rotating speeds lower than the threshold speed of instability (evaluated by the linear approach) for specific unbalance magnitude and design properties. Unbalance response (with stable and unstable branches) is evaluated in severely reduced time compared to this applying time integration methods, enabling nonlinear rotor dynamic design of such systems as a standard procedure, and revealing the complete potential of motions (not only local).