Inelastic deformation of metals introduces structural changes which during unloading and reversed loading cause the Bauschinger effect. This effect may be interpreted in terms of microscopic and submicroscopic residual stresses. A slightly elevated-temperature treatment applied to an overstrained tension specimen at zero load allows two mechanisms to occur, namely, (a) relaxation of microscopic residual shear stresses in slip bands, and (b) a reduction of submicroscopic residual forces around flaws and disordered regions by the place change of atoms. Each of these mechanisms, (a) and (b) partially or completely removes the Bauschinger effect. In brass and low-carbon steel, the application of a slightly elevated-temperature treatment at a high stress level, during which mechanism (a) does not occur, very nearly or completely removes the Bauschinger effect. It appears therefore that the removal of the Bauschinger effect can be attributed, under these conditions to mechanism (b). This fact means that in load-resisting members made of these metals and containing favorable macroscopic residual stresses induced by inelastic deformation, the undesirable microscopic and submicroscopic residual stresses which cause the Bauschinger effect may be removed, thereby retaining the full theoretical value of the favorable macroscopic residual stresses.