We developed a method of hybrid particle/cubic interpolated propagation (CIP) to predict the motion of micro- and macrofree surfaces within gas-liquid flows. Microfree surfaces (smaller than the grid sizes) were simulated with the particle method, and macrofree surfaces (larger than the grid sizes) were simulated with the grid method (CIP is a kind of grid method). With the hybrid, velocities given by the advection part of the particle method were combined with those given by the advection part of CIP. Furthermore, the particles used with the particle method were assigned near the macrofree surfaces by using the volume fraction of liquid that was calculated with CIP. The method we developed was used to predict the collapse of a liquid column. Namely, it was simultaneously able to predict both large deformation in the liquid column and its fragmentation, and the predicted configurations for the liquid column agreed well with the experimentally measured ones. It was also used to predict the behavior of liquid films at the outlet of a fuel injector used for automobile engines. The particle method in the simulation was mainly used for liquid films in the air region and the grid method was used for the other regions to shorten the computational time. The predicted profile of the liquid film was very sharp in the air region where the liquid film became thinner than the grid sizes; there was no loss of liquid film with numerical diffusion.
Hybrid Particle/Grid Method for Predicting Motion of Micro- and Macrofree Surfaces
Ishii, E., Ishikawa, T., and Tanabe, Y. (February 28, 2006). "Hybrid Particle/Grid Method for Predicting Motion of Micro- and Macrofree Surfaces." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. September 2006; 128(5): 921–930. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2234784
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