This paper deals with three-dimensional, turbulent, confined impinging flows. Various turbulence models are examined with reported laser-Doppler velocimetry data and flow-visualization photographs. The turbulence models considered are the k–ε, k–ε with the Richardson number correction for swirling and recirculating flows (k–ε w/scm), algebraic Reynolds stress (k–ε–A), and modified k–kl models. The k–ε and k–ε–A models are found to be superior to the k–ε w/scm and modified k–kl models in predicting the main flow characteristics. The k–ε–A model provides a better quantitative agreement with the experimental data than can be achieved with the k–ε model, however, less computational effort is spent with the k–ε model than with the k–ε–A model. Also, the effect of the inlet velocity profile on the characteristics of the confined impinging flows is addressed in this study.

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