A numerical technique was developed to investigate the performance of automotive lifting surfaces in close proximity to ground. The model is based on the Vortex Lattice Method and includes freely-deforming wake elements. The ground effect was simulated by reflection and both steady and unsteady pressures and loads on various wing planforms were considered. Calculated results are presented for wings having both positive and negative incidences, with and without ground effect. Also the transient lift of a wing in a plunging motion was analyzed in ground proximity and at a negative angle of attack. Finally the periodic lift fluctuations on the front winglet of a racing car, due to its suspension oscillations, were calculated and found to exceed approximately twice the steady-state value.

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