The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate test methods developed to experimentally characterize the in situ mechanical behavior of solder ball arrays connecting printed wiring boards to area array packages under tensile, compressive, and shear loading at , 23, and 125 °C. The solder ball arrays tested were composed of 62%Sn–36%Pb–2%Ag solder alloy. Finite element modeling was performed. The results indicated that the test fixture should be geometrically equivalent to the projected shape of the ball grid array to achieve uniform loading. Tension, compression, and shear tests were conducted. For tensile loading the interfaces and the solder balls are loaded in series resulting in a large apparent strain (13%). Various interfacial failure modes are observed. Under compression and shear loading the effect of the interfaces are negligible and therefore a significant deformation and a remarkable yielding behavior of solder ball arrays can be observed. Furthermore, the specimens tested under shear loading showed different failure modes such as cohesive or adhesive failure modes depending on the test temperature. From the overall results, it has been determined that shear loading is the most representative test to measure the actual mechanical behavior of solder in ball grid arrays.
Test Method Development to Quantify the In Situ Elastic and Plastic Behavior of 62%Sn–36%Pb–2%Ag Solder Ball Arrays in Commercial Area Array Packages at −40 °C , 23 °C, and 125 °C
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Obaid, A. A., Sloan, J. G., Lamontia, M. A., Paesano, A., Khan, S., and Gillespie, J. W., Jr. (March 21, 2005). "Test Method Development to Quantify the In Situ Elastic and Plastic Behavior of 62%Sn–36%Pb–2%Ag Solder Ball Arrays in Commercial Area Array Packages at −40 °C , 23 °C, and 125 °C." ASME. J. Electron. Packag. December 2005; 127(4): 483–495. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2070048
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