The resistance of silane bonded epoxy/glass interfaces to subcritical crack growth was studied as a function of the density of primary bonds between the silane and epoxy using the double-cleavage drilled compression test (DCDC). The silane coupling agents propyltriethoxysilane (PES), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APES) and various mixtures of 3-APES and PES were used to systematically control the bonding density since 3-APES can form primary bonds with both the glass and the epoxy, while PES forms primary bonds only with the glass. The resistance of these interfaces to crack growth was tested under both static and cyclic loading in high and low humidity test environments. These tests allowed the separation of the effects on crack growth due to stress corrosion and cyclic fatigue. Experimental results showed that the density of primary bonding between the silane layer and the epoxy controls the cyclic fatigue resistance of the silanized interfaces. Additionally, for 3-APES bonded epoxy/glass interfaces cyclic fatigue crack growth predominates at both high and low humidities but for PES bonded interfaces, crack growth by stress corrosion dominates at high humidity and by cyclic fatigue at low humidities. For a 50% 3-APES/50% PES bonded interface, stress corrosion effects are somewhat greater than cyclic fatigue effects at high humidities but at low humidities the two effects are comparable. When testing the interfaces for durability, PES bonded interfaces showed spontaneous delamination when aged in distilled water for 36h at 94°C. On the other hand, 3-APES and mixtures of 3-APES bonded interfaces did not show any detrimental effect of the cyclic fatigue resistance when aged in distilled water at temperatures up to 98°C.
Controlling Subcritical Crack Growth at Epoxy/Glass Interfaces
Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division and presented at Poly 2000, London, United Kingdom, December 4–5, 2000. Manuscript received at ASME Headquarters, May 2002. Guest Editor: Bernd Michel.
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Ritter , J. E., Jacome , G. S., Pelch , J. R., Russell , T. P., and Lardner , T. J. (December 12, 2002). "Controlling Subcritical Crack Growth at Epoxy/Glass Interfaces ." ASME. J. Electron. Packag. December 2002; 124(4): 328–333. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1503064
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