Input saturation is a well-known nonlinearity in mechanical control systems; it constrains the maximum acceleration, which results in the limitation of the system response time. Input saturation has been considered in controller design in various ways, e.g., antiwindup control. In addition to the input, the state variables of mechanical systems are often subjected to saturation. For example, the maximum angular velocity of electric motor systems is limited by the maximum voltage provided to the motor windings. In the case of electronically commutated motors (i.e., brushless dc motors), the maximum speed is additionally constrained by limitations of the servo amplifier output. If gears are utilized, further constraints are introduced due to resonances in ball bearings and/or velocity dependent friction. Although such factors are significant in practice, they have not been fully considered in controller design. This paper investigates the input and output saturations, and presents how they may be considered in the controller design; a Kalman filter, a PID controller, and a disturbance observer are designed, taking input/output saturations into consideration. A case study is provided to verify the proposed methods.
Output Saturation in Electric Motor Systems: Identification and Controller Design
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Kong, K., Kniep, H. C., and Tomizuka, M. (August 11, 2010). "Output Saturation in Electric Motor Systems: Identification and Controller Design." ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. September 2010; 132(5): 051002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4001792
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