A finite element method to simulate the formation of an interconnected trabecular bone microstructure oriented with respect to applied in vivo mechanical forces is introduced and quantitatively compared to experimental data from a hydraulic bone chamber implant model. Randomly located 45 μm mineralized nodules were used as the initial condition for the model simulations to represent an early stage of intramembranous bone formation. Boundary conditions were applied consistent with the mechanical environment provided by the in vivo bone chamber model. A two-dimensional repair simulation algorithm that incorporated strain energy density (SED), SED gradient, principal strain, or principal strain gradient as the local objective criterion was utilized to simulate the formation of an oriented trabecular bone microstructure. The simulation solutions were convergent, unique, and relatively insensitive to the assumed initial distribution of mineralized nodules. Model predictions of trabecular bone morphology and anisotropy were quantitatively compared to experimental results. All simulations produced structures that qualitatively resembled oriented trabecular bone. However, only simulations utilizing a gradient objective criterion yielded results quantitatively similar to in vivo observations. This simulation approach coupled with an experimental model that delivers controlled in vivo mechanical stimuli can be utilized to study the relationship between physical factors and microstructural adaptation during bone repair.
A Microstructural Finite Element Simulation of Mechanically Induced Bone Formation
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division December 27, 1999; revised manuscript received June 7, 2001. Associate Editor: T. M. Keavey.
Koontz, J. T., Charras, G. T., and Guldberg, R. E. (June 7, 2001). "A Microstructural Finite Element Simulation of Mechanically Induced Bone Formation ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. December 2001; 123(6): 607–612. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1406951
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