0
Research Papers

A Cable Length Invariant Robotic Tail Using a Circular Shape Universal Joint Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Yujiong Liu

Robotics and Mechatronics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: yjliu@vt.edu

Jiamin Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: jmechw@vt.edu

Pinhas Ben-Tzvi

Mem. ASME
Robotics and Mechatronics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: bentzvi@vt.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics. Manuscript received December 3, 2018; final manuscript received June 12, 2019; published online July 9, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Alon Wolf.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 11(5), 051005 (Jul 09, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: JMR-18-1439; doi: 10.1115/1.4044067 History: Received December 03, 2018; Accepted June 12, 2019

This paper presents the development of a new robotic tail based on a novel cable-driven universal joint mechanism. The novel joint mechanism is synthesized by geometric reasoning to achieve the desired cable length invariance property, wherein the mechanism maintains a constant length for the driving cables under universal rotation. This feature is preferable because it allows for the bidirectional pulling of the cables which reduces the requisite number of actuators. After obtaining this new joint mechanism, a serpentine robotic tail with fewer actuators, simpler controls, and a more robust structure is designed and integrated. The new tail includes two independent macro segments (2 degrees of freedom each) to generate more complex shapes (4 degrees of freedom total), which helps with improving the dexterity and versatility of the robot. In addition, the pitch bending and yaw bending of the tail are decoupled due to the perpendicular joint axes. The kinematic modeling, dynamic modeling, and workspace analysis are then explained for the new robotic tail. Three experiments focusing on statics, dynamics, and dexterity are conducted to validate the mechanism and evaluate the new robotic tail's performance.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Proske, U., 1980, “Energy Conservation by Elastic Storage in Kangaroos,” Endeavour, 4(4), pp. 148–153. [CrossRef]
Wilson, A. M., Lowe, J. C., Roskilly, K., Hudson, P. E., Golabek, K. A., and McNutt, J. W., 2013, “Locomotion Dynamics of Hunting in Wild Cheetahs,” Nature, 498(7453), pp. 185–189. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sfakiotakis, M., Lane, D. M., and Davies, J. B. C., 1999, “Review of Fish Swimming Modes for Aquatic Locomotion,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 24(2), pp. 237–252. [CrossRef]
Young, J. W., Russo, G. A., Fellmann, C. D., Thatikunta, M. A., and Chadwell, B. A., 2015, “Tail Function During Arboreal Quadrupedalism in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus),” J. Exp. Zool. Part A, 323(8), pp. 556–566.
Jusufi, A., Kawano, D. T., Libby, T., and Full, R. J., 2010, “Righting and Turning in Mid-Air Using Appendage Inertia: Reptile Tails, Analytical Models and Bio-Inspired Robots,” Bioinspir. Biomim., 5(4), p. 045001. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Libby, T., Moore, T. Y., Chang-Siu, E., Li, D., Cohen, D. J., Jusufi, A., and Full, R. J., 2012, “Tail-Assisted Pitch Control in Lizards, Robots and Dinosaurs,” Nature, 481(7380), p. 181. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Patel, A., and Braae, M., 2013, “Rapid Turning at High-Speed: Inspirations From the Cheetah’s Tail,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 3–7, pp. 5506–5511.
Patel, A., and Braae, M., 2014, “Rapid Acceleration and Braking: Inspirations From the Cheetah’s Tail,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Hong Kong, China, May 31–Jun. 7, pp. 793–799.
Rone, W., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2016, “Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Yaw-Angle Quadruped Maneuvering With a Planar Robotic Tail,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 138(8), p. 084502. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2018, “Dynamic Modeling of a Quadruped With a Robotic Tail Using Virtual Work Principle,” Proceedings of the IDETC/CIE, Quebec City, Canada, Aug. 26–29, p. V05BT07A021, ASME Paper No. DETC2018-86048.
Patel, A., and Boje, E., 2015, “On the Conical Motion of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Tail Inspired by the Cheetah,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 31(6), pp. 1555–1560. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Zhao, T., Xi, N., Mutka, M. W., and Xiao, L., 2015, “MSU Tailbot: Controlling Aerial Maneuver of a Miniature-Tailed Jumping Robot,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 20(6), pp. 2903–2914. [CrossRef]
Chang-Siu, E., Libby, T., Tomizuka, M., and Full, R. J., 2011, “A Lizard-Inspired Active Tail Enables Rapid Maneuvers and Dynamic Stabilization in a Terrestrial Robot,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 25–30, pp. 1887–1894.
Liu, G. H., Lin, H. Y., Lin, H. Y., Chen, S. T., and Lin, P. C., 2014, “A Bio-Inspired Hopping Kangaroo Robot With an Active Tail,” J. Bionic Eng., 11(4), pp. 541–555. [CrossRef]
Briggs, R., Lee, J., Haberland, M., and Kim, S., 2012, “Tails in Biomimetic Design: Analysis, Simulation, and Experiment,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Portugal, Oct. 7–12, pp. 1473–1480.
De, A., and Koditschek, D. E., 2015, “Parallel Composition of Templates for Tail-Energized Planar Hopping,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Seattle, WA, May 26–30, pp. 4562–4569.
Hannan, M. W., and Walker, I. D., 2003, “Kinematics and the Implementation of an Elephant’s Trunk Manipulator and Other Continuum Style Robots,” J. Rob. Syst., 20(2), pp. 45–63. [CrossRef]
Moses, M. S., Kutzer, M. D. M., Ma, H., and Armand, M., 2013, “A Continuum Manipulator Made of Interlocking Fibers,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6–10, pp. 4008–4015.
Kim, Y. J., Cheng, S., Kim, S., and Iagnemma, K., 2014, “A Stiffness-Adjustable Hyperredundant Manipulator Using a Variable Neutral-Line Mechanism for Minimally Invasive Surgery,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 30(2), pp. 382–395. [CrossRef]
Saab, W., Rone, W. S., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2018, “Discrete Modular Serpentine Robotic Tail: Design, Analysis and Experimentation,” Robotica, 36(7), pp. 994–1018. [CrossRef]
Rone, W. S., Saab, W., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2018, “Design, Modeling, and Integration of a Flexible Universal Spatial Robotic Tail,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 10(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Saab, W., Rone, W. S., Kumar, A., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2019, “Design and Integration of a Novel Spatial Articulated Robotic Tail,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 24(2), pp. 434–446. [CrossRef]
Rone, W. S., Liu, Y., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2019, “Maneuvering and Stabilization Control of a Bipedal Robot With a Universal-Spatial Robotic Tail,” Bioinspir. Biomim., 14(1), p. 016014. [CrossRef]
Rone, W. S., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2012, “Continuum Manipulator Statics Based on the Principle of Virtual Work,” Proceedings of the IMECE, Houston, TX, Nov. 9–15, pp. 321–328, ASME Paper No. IMECE2012-87675.
Saab, W., Rone, W. S., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2018, “Robotic Tails: A State-of-the-art Review,” Robotica, 36(9), pp. 1263–1277. [CrossRef]
Lim, W. B., Yeo, S. H., Yang, G., and Mustafa, S. K., 2009, “Kinematic Analysis and Design Optimization of a Cable-Driven Universal Joint Module,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Singapore, Singapore, July 14–17, pp. 1933–1938.
Tang, L., Wang, J., Zheng, Y., Gu, G., Zhu, L., and Zhu, X., 2017, “Design of a Cable-Driven Hyper-Redundant Robot With Experimental Validation,” Int. J. Adv. Rob. Syst., 14(5), p. 1729881417734458.
Yigit, C. B., and Boyraz, P., 2017, “Design and Modelling of a Cable-Driven Parallel-Series Hybrid Variable Stiffness Joint Mechanism for Robotics,” Mech. Sci., 8(1), pp. 65–77. [CrossRef]
Kim, Y. J., 2017, “Anthropomorphic Low-Inertia High-Stiffness Manipulator for High-Speed Safe Interaction,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 33(6), pp. 1358–1374. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y., Kong, M., Wan, N., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2018, “A Geometric Approach to Obtain the Closed-Form Forward Kinematics of H4 Parallel Robot,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 10(5), p. 051013. [CrossRef]
Huang, T., Li, Z., Li, M., Chetwynd, D. G., and Gosselin, C. M., 2004, “Conceptual Design and Dimensional Synthesis of a Novel 2-DOF Translational Parallel Robot for Pick-and-Place Operations,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 126(3), pp. 449–455. [CrossRef]
Patel, A., Stocks, B., Fisher, C., Nicolls, F., and Boje, E., 2017, “Tracking the Cheetah Tail Using Animal-Borne Cameras, GPS, and an IMU,” IEEE Sens Lett., 1(4), pp. 1–4. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., Kamidi, V., and Ben-Tzvi, P., 2018, “A Multibody Toolbox for Hybrid Dynamic System Modeling Based on Nonholonomic Symbolic Formalism,” Proceedings of the DSCC, Atlanta, GA, Sept. 30–Oct. 3, pp. V003T29A003, ASME Paper No. DSCC2018-9000.
Isidori, A., 1995, Nonlinear Control Systems, Springer, Berlin.
Caro, S., Khan, W. A., Pasini, D., and Angeles, J., 2010, “The Rule-Based Conceptual Design of the Architecture of Serial Schönflies-Motion Generators,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 45(2), pp. 251–260. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

RML tail prototype

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) USRT, (b) DMST, (c) R3RT, (d) spatial straight routing, (e) planar straight routing, and (f) planar circular routing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Illustration of problem setting for mechanism syntheses and (b) the geometric illustration of the lemma

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

One cable set routing case: (a) the first scenario in the theorem requires B to coincide with B′, (b) the second scenario in the theorem, (c) an example showing that AB cannot be perpendicular to the first rotation axis EF, and (d) the third scenario in the theorem

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The illustration of the two sets of the cable case. The lines from G to H through P1 belong to one solid body. The lines from A to B through P2 belong to another solid body. The transparent thick solid lines belong to one cable routing profile. The transparent thick dashed lines belong to the other cable routing profile.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Two typical connecting cases: (a) the sliding circle CirO1A1P3 is parallel to the other sliding circle CirO2A2P3, (b) the sliding circle CirO1A1P3 is parallel to the other sliding circle CirO2G2P3. The transparent thick solid lines belong to one cable routing profile. The transparent thick dashed lines belong to the other cable routing profile.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Complete assembly of the RML tail without the extensional springs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The mechanical design of the segment assembly

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The segment design capturing the mechanism in Fig. 6(b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Designs to achieve the multi macro segment feature and (b) the cable routing in the actuation module

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Kinematic configuration of the RML tail

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Section view of the end effector workspace and the COM workspace of the RML tail

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) The two shapes for each bending and (b) combining yaw and pitch bending to achieve rolling motion (cables and some eyebolts are hidden for clarity)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Multimode shapes show the dexterity of the RML tail

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Simulated and experimental shape measurements for (a) yaw bending of 90 deg and (b) pitch bending of 90 deg. The simulations were carried out in matlab with a multibody dynamics toolbox developed in the Robotics and Mechatronics Lab [33].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Two implemented measurement techniques: (a) the coordinate board and (b) the Kinect V2 stereo camera system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

3D measurements of four typical poses with uncertainty ellipsoids. The simulations were carried out in matlab with a multibody dynamics toolbox developed in the Robotics and Mechatronics Lab [33].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Simulated and experimental loading for yaw bending of 180 deg in 0.75 s. The simulations were carried out in matlab with a multibody dynamics toolbox developed in the Robotics and Mechatronics Lab [33].

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In