Research Papers

A Micropump Sucker Using a Piezo-Driven Flexible Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Jihao Liu

Robotics Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yihongyishui@sjtu.edu.cn

Weixin Yan

Robotics Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xiaogu4524@sjtu.edu.cn

Yanzheng Zhao

Robotics Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yzh-zhao@sjtu.edu.cn

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics. Manuscript received June 20, 2018; final manuscript received April 13, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Xilun Ding.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 11(4), 041009 (May 17, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: JMR-18-1182; doi: 10.1115/1.4043600 History: Received June 20, 2018; Accepted April 16, 2019

A micropump sucker employs a gas film micropump to produce a negative pressure adhesion in a suction cup. In this study, a piezo-driven flexible actuator was developed based on a bridge-type mechanism as a vibrator for such a micropump film. The model of the flexible actuator under an external load is built based on an elastic model, and the displacement, driving force, and work efficiency are formulated in terms of the external loads, materials, and geometric parameters. The finite element method was used to verify this analytical model. An increase in the compliance of flexure hinges was found to improve the performances of the flexible actuator. The Young’s modulus of materials decides force performances and the effects of external loads. Based on the elastic analysis, the proposed flexible mechanism, made of silicon, was optimized to realize optimal output displacement in a compact size and employed in the prototype of a micropump sucker with a weight of 1.3 g that produced a maximum negative pressure of 2.45 kPa. It can hold on a weight of 1.4 g. When the inlet of the proposed sucker is open, it has the maximum flow rate of 4 ml/min.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Chu, B., Jung, K., Han, C.-S., and Hong, D., 2010, “A Survey of Climbing Robots: Locomotion and Adhesion,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., 11(4), pp. 633–647. [CrossRef]
Hillenbrand, C., Schmidt, D., and Berns, K., 2008, “CROMSCI: Development of a Climbing Robot With Negative Pressure Adhesion for Inspections,” Ind. Rob., 35(3), pp. 228–237. [CrossRef]
Wu, S., Wu, L., and Liu, T., 2011, “Design of a Sliding Wall Climbing Robot with a Novel Negative Adsorption Device,” 2011 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence (URAI), Incheon, South Korea, Nov. 23–26, pp. 97–100.
Amakawa, T., Yamaguchi, T., Yamada, Y., and Nakamura, T., 2017, “Proposing an Adhesion Unit for a Traveling-Wave-Type, Omnidirectional Wall-Climbing Robot in Airplane Body Inspection Applications,” 2017 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics (ICM), Churchill, Australia, Feb. 13–15, pp. 178–183.
Oh, K. W., and Ahn, C. H., 2006, “A Review of Microvalves,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 16(5), pp. R13–R39. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, N.-T., Huang, X., and Chuan, T. K., 2002, “MEMS-Micropumps: A Review,” J. Fluids Eng., 124(2), pp. 384–392. [CrossRef]
Kawun, P., Leahy, S., and Lai, Y., 2016, “A Thin PDMS Nozzle/Diffuser Micropump for Biomedical Applications,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., 249, pp. 149–154. [CrossRef]
Gerlach, T., and Wurmus, H., 1995, “Working Principle and Performance of the Dynamic Micropump,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., 50(1–2), pp. 135–140. [CrossRef]
Zhou, W.-M., Li, W.-J., Hong, S.-Y., Jin, J., and Yin, S.-Y., 2017, “Stoney Formula for Piezoelectric Film/Elastic Substrate System,” Chin. Phys. B, 26(3), p. 037701. [CrossRef]
Chen, S., Lu, S., Liu, Y., Wang, J., Tian, X., Liu, G., and Yang, Z., 2016, “A Normally-Closed Piezoelectric Micro-Valve With Flexible Stopper,” AIP Adv., 6(4), p. 045112. [CrossRef]
Xu, Q., 2013, “Design, Testing and Precision Control of a Novel Long-Stroke Flexure Micropositioning System,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 70, pp. 209–224. [CrossRef]
Lai, L.-J., and Zhu, Z.-N., 2017, “Design, Modeling and Testing of a Novel Flexure-Based Displacement Amplification Mechanism,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., 266, pp. 122–129. [CrossRef]
Nam, J., Kim, Y., and Jang, G., 2015, “Resonant Piezoelectric Vibrator With High Displacement at Haptic Frequency Devices,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 21(1), pp. 394–401.
Wang, X. Y., Ma, Y. T., Yan, G. Y., and Feng, Z. H., 2014, “A Compact and High Flow-Rate Piezoelectric Micropump With a Folded Vibrator,” Smart Mater. Struct., 23(11), p. 115005. [CrossRef]
Pan, Q. S., He, L. G., Huang, F. S., Wang, X. Y., and Feng, Z. H., 2015, “Piezoelectric Micropump Using Dual-Frequency Drive,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., 229, pp. 86–93. [CrossRef]
Pang, J., Liu, P., Yan, P., and Zhang, Z., 2016, “Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Composite Bridge Type Amplifier Based Nano-Positioner,” 2016 IEEE International Conference on Manipulation, Manufacturing and Measurement on the Nanoscale (3M-NANO), Chongqing, China, July 18–22, pp. 25–30.
Liu, P., and Yan, P., 2016, “A New Model Analysis Approach for Bridge-Type Amplifiers Supporting Nano-Stage Design,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 99, pp. 176–188. [CrossRef]
Pokines, B. J., and Garcia, E., 1998, “A Smart Material Microamplification Mechanism Fabricated Using LIGA,” Smart Mater. Struct., 7(1), pp. 105–112. [CrossRef]
Wang, F., Liang, C., Tian, Y., Zhao, X., and Zhang, D., 2016, “Design and Control of a Compliant Microgripper With a Large Amplification Ratio for High-Speed Micro Manipulation,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 21(3), pp. 1262–1271. [CrossRef]
Wang, F., Liang, C., Tian, Y., Zhao, X., and Zhang, D., 2015, “Design of a Piezoelectric-Actuated Microgripper With a Three-Stage Flexure-Based Amplification,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 20(5), pp. 2205–2213. [CrossRef]
Liang, C., Wang, F., Tian, Y., Zhao, X., and Zhang, D., 2017, “Development of a High Speed and Precision Wire Clamp With Both Position and Force Regulations,” Rob. Comput.-Integr. Manuf., 44, pp. 208–217. [CrossRef]
Kim, J.-J., Choi, Y.-M., Ahn, D., Hwang, B., Gweon, D.-G., and Jeong, J., 2012, “A Millimeter-Range Flexure-Based Nano-Positioning Stage Using a Self-Guided Displacement Amplification Mechanism,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 50, pp. 109–120. [CrossRef]
Park, S. K., and Gao, X.-L., 2006, “Bernoulli–Euler Beam Model Based on a Modified Couple Stress Theory,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 16(11), pp. 2355–2359. [CrossRef]
Wei, H., Shirinzadeh, B., Li, W., Clark, L., Pinskier, J., and Wang, Y., 2017, “Development of Piezo-Driven Compliant Bridge Mechanisms: General Analytical Equations and Optimization of Displacement Amplification,” Micromachines, 8(8), p. 238. [CrossRef]
Luo, Y., Liu, W., and Wu, L., 2015, “Analysis of the Displacement of Lumped Compliant Parallel-Guiding Mechanism Considering Parasitic Rotation and Deflection on the Guiding Plate and Rigid Beams,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 91, pp. 50–68. [CrossRef]
Ma, H.-W., Yao, S.-M., Wang, L.-Q., and Zhong, Z., 2006, “Analysis of the Displacement Amplification Ratio of Bridge-Type Flexure Hinge,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., 132(2), pp. 730–736. [CrossRef]
Qi, K., Xiang, Y., Fang, C., Zhang, Y., and Yu, C., 2015, “Analysis of the Displacement Amplification Ratio of Bridge-Type Mechanism,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 87, pp. 45–56. [CrossRef]
Ling, M., Cao, J., Jiang, Z., and Lin, J., 2016, “Theoretical Modeling of Attenuated Displacement Amplification for Multistage Compliant Mechanism and Its Application,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., 249, pp. 15–22. [CrossRef]
Choi, K.-B., Lee, J. J., Kim, G. H., Lim, H. J., and Kwon, S. G., 2018, “Amplification Ratio Analysis of a Bridge-Type Mechanical Amplification Mechanism Based on a Fully Compliant Model,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 121, pp. 355–372. [CrossRef]
Chen, F., Du, Z., Yang, M., Gao, F., Dong, W., and Zhang, D., 2018, “Design and Analysis of a Three-Dimensional Bridge-Type Mechanism Based on the Stiffness Distribution,” Prec. Eng., 51, pp. 48–58. [CrossRef]
Lobontiu, N., and Garcia, E., 2003, “Analytical Model of Displacement Amplification and Stiffness Optimization for a Class of Flexure-Based Compliant Mechanisms,” Comput. Struct., 81(32), pp. 2797–2810. [CrossRef]
Dong, W., Chen, F., Yang, M., Du, Z., Tang, J., and Zhang, D., 2017, “Development of a Highly Efficient Bridge-Type Mechanism Based on Negative Stiffness,” Smart Mater. Struct., 26(9), p. 095053. [CrossRef]
Mo, C., Wright, R., Slaughter, W. S., and Clark, W. W., 2006, “Behaviour of a Unimorph Circular Piezoelectric Actuator,” Smart Mater. Struct., 15(4), pp. 1094–1102. [CrossRef]
Wang, D. H., and Huo, J., 2010, “Modeling and Testing of the Static Deflections of Circular Piezoelectric Unimorph Actuators,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 21(16), pp. 1603–1616. [CrossRef]
Liu, J., Guan, E., Li, P., Wang, F., Liang, C., and Zhao, Y., 2017, “Deflection Behavior of a Piezo-Driven Flexible Actuator for Vacuum Micropumps,” Sens. Actuators A: Phys., 267, pp. 30–41. [CrossRef]
Lobontiu, N., 2002, Compliant Mechanisms: Design of Flexure Hinges, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematics of the developed micropump sucker

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Operating procedure of the micropump sucker

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the flexure hinge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of the deformed flexible mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Skeleton of the flexible mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic view of the flexible linkage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic view of the bridge arm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effects of various external loads on displacement characteristics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effects of various external loads on the driving force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effects of various external loads on work efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effects of materials on output displacement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effects of materials on driving force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effects of materials on work efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Effects of geometric parameters on output displacement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Effects of geometric parameters on driving force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Effects of geometric parameters on preload force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Effects of geometric parameters on work efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Prototypes of the flexible mechanisms and the flexible actuator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Prototype of the flexible actuator and its experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Output displacement versus different driving voltages: (a) comparison of the analytical results and (b) experimental results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Prototype of the micropump sucker

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Experiment of the negative pressure: (a) experimental platform and (b) assembly method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Negative pressure of the suction cup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Negative pressure at a frequency of 13.2 kHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Demonstration of adsorption of the micropump sucker

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Total current at various driving frequencies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Experimental platform for the flow rate of the micropump

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Flow rate of the inlet of the micropump



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In