Stress Intensification Factors or SIFs allow piping to be analyzed using beam theory, with a SIF representing local effects of specific piping geometry. However, the current piping codes do not explicitly provide SIFs for collared type piping joints for use in pipe stress calculations.
The objective of this paper is to describe the methodology on how a finite element analysis (FEA) was to model the behavior of collared joints, and to ultimately develop appropriate SIFs that can be used in pipe stress analyses.
This paper describes a real-life analysis example on collared joints installed on a set of existing fuel transfer lines. The lines, which ranged in size from DN200 to DN350, were concrete lined carbon steel with the collars fillet welded to the carbon steel section of the piping.
Test coupons cut from existing pipe-collar sections were tested in a laboratory to determine the forces required to break the collar welds. Using FEA, the same test coupons were modelled to replicate the failure tests.
Multiple iterations were undertaken to determine an appropriate bi-linear stress-strain curve fit for the weld material. The curves of different weld electrode materials were considered. The curve which lead to results similar to those observed in physical testing was selected. From this, a failure stress across the weld could be determined. This stress, 435MPa was then used in subsequent models to determine the point at which the weld fails under bending loads. Multiple tests were analyzed to allow for possible effects of inclusions and voids.
Finite element models of the collar geometries were constructed and non-linear analyses were undertaken using the weld strengths determined from the coupon testing data. A simple cantilever type arrangement with a point load at one end was analyzed, inducing a bending moment across the collar.
The peak stress resulting from the bending moment across the collar weld at the center of the cantilevered pipe arrangement, was investigated across various pipe diameters, wall thicknesses, weld sizes and collar geometries.
Based on the results, a relationship between the pipe geometry and SIF was developed. Hence a pipe stress model of the transfer lines could ultimately be developed using these SIFs to predict the behavior of the piping.