Abstract

Coronary artery disease is the abnormal contraction of heart supply blood vessel. It may lead to major consequences such as heart attack and death. This narrowing in the coronary artery limits the oxygenated blood flow to the heart. Thus, diagnosing its severity helps physicians to select the appropriate treatment plan. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) is one of the most accurate methods to pinpoint the stenosis severity. The advantages of FFR are high accuracy, immediate estimation of the severity of the stenosis, and concomitant treatment using balloon or stent. Nevertheless, the main disadvantage of the FFR is being an invasive procedure that requires an incision under anesthesia. Moreover, inserting the guidewire across the stenosis may result in a ‘tight-fit’ between the vessel lumen and the guidewire. This may cause an increase in the measured pressure drop, leading to a false estimation of the blood flow parameters. To estimate the errors in diagnosis procedures, a comprehensive three-dimensional model blood flow along with guidewire is developed. Reconstructed three-dimensional coronary artery geometry from a patient-specific scan is used. Blood is considered non-Newtonian and the flow is pulsatile. The comprehensive model is numerically simulated using boundary conditions. Based on the predicted results, the ratio between pressure drop and distal dynamic pressure (CDP) is studied. The predicted results for each case are compared with the control case (the case without guidewire) and analyzed. It was found that simulating the model by placing the guidewire at a full position prior to the simulation leads to an overestimation of the CDP as it increases by 34.3%. However, simulating the procedure of guidewire insertion is more accurate. It shows that the CDP value increases by 7%.

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