Microelectronics packaging technology has evolved from through-hole and bulk configuration to surface-mount and small-profile ones. In surface mount packaging, such as flip chips, chip scale packages (CSP), and ball grid arrays (BGA), chips/packages are attached to the substrates or printed wiring boards (PWB) using solder bump interconnections. Solder bumps, which are hidden between the device and the substrate/board, are no longer visible for inspection. A novel solder bump inspection system has been developed using laser ultrasound and interferometric techniques. This system has been successfully applied to detect solder bump defects including missing, misaligned, open, and cracked solder bumps in flip chips, and chip scale packages. This system uses a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to induce ultrasound in the thermoelastic regime and the transient out-of-plane displacement response on the device surface is measured using the interferometric technique. In this paper, local temporal coherence (LTC) analysis of laser ultrasound signals is presented and compared to previous signal processing methods, including Error Ratio and Correlation Coefficient. The results show that local temporal coherence analysis increases measurement sensitivity for inspecting solder bumps in packaged electronic devices. Laser ultrasound inspection results are also compared with X-ray and C-mode Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (CSAM) results. In particular, this paper discusses defect detection for a 6.35mm×6.35mm×0.6mm PB18 flip chip and a flip chip (SiMAF) with 24 lead-free solder bumps. These two flip chip specimens are both non-underfilled.
Defect Detection of Flip Chip Solder Bumps Through Local Temporal Coherence Analysis of Laser Ultrasound Signals
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Yang, J, & Ume, C. "Defect Detection of Flip Chip Solder Bumps Through Local Temporal Coherence Analysis of Laser Ultrasound Signals." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 5: Electronics and Photonics. Seattle, Washington, USA. November 11–15, 2007. pp. 375-384. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2007-42571
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