Laser aided manufacturing process inherently includes many nonlinear and non-equilibrium transport phenomena due to non-uniform and rapid heat flow caused by the laser and the material interaction. Comprehensive understanding of the transport phenomenon and heat transfer analysis including phase transformation is essential to predict the effects of thermally induced residual stresses and distortions in deposited materials. It not only helps to improve the process but also reduces the long and cumbersome experimental route to compile sufficient data to predict the material behavior under similar loading conditions. This paper is an attempt towards a methodology of finite element analysis for the prediction of quenching related macroscopic as well as microscopic residual stress in a laser cladding process. A finite element program has been written to account for the micro-residual stress effects. The program is essentially a coupling between a preliminary estimation of temperature history of the system and the final prediction of residual stresses which also include the phase transformation kinetics of the material during its cooling. The importance of considering phase transformation effects during quenching is also verified through the comparison of the magnitudes of residual stresses with and without the inclusion of phase transformation kinetics. The FEA program for this model is a very useful tool for designing and optimizing Laseraided Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) process conditions so that products with the best internal quality and dimensional accuracy can be built.
Three-Dimensional Transient Residual Stress Finite Element Analysis for a Laser Clad Surface
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Ghosh, S, & Choi, J. "Three-Dimensional Transient Residual Stress Finite Element Analysis for a Laser Clad Surface." Proceedings of the ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Heat Transfer, Volume 3. Washington, DC, USA. November 15–21, 2003. pp. 99-107. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2003-41566
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