The probabilistic response of an anatomically accurate, three-dimensional, non-linear and experimentally validated finite element model of the human lower cervical spine is presented. Biological variability of the model input variables is accounted for by modeling these parameters as random variables. Efficient probabilistic methods are used to determine the effect of biological variability on the computed response of the non-linear finite element model. Probabilistic sensitivity factors are determined to assess the relative importance of each of the random variables on the probabilistic response.

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