Dynamics of axially moving continua, such as beams, cables and strings, can be modeled by use of an Arbitrary La-grangian Eulerian (ALE) approach. Within a Finite Element framework, an ALE element is indeed a non-material system, i.e. a mass flow occurs at its boundaries. This article presents the dynamic description of such systems and highlights the peculiarities that arise when applying standard mechanical principles to non-material systems. Starting from D’Alembert’s principle, Hamilton’s principle and Lagrange’s equations for a non-material system are derived and the significance of the additional transport terms discussed. Subsequently, the numerical example of a length-changing beam is illustrated. Energetic considerations show the complex dynamic behavior non-material systems might exhibit.

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