In the case of variable amplitude loading, fatigue damage accumulation theory is closely related to loading histories, such as load sequences, load interactions, and so on. Due to the lack of load histories, there may be a large deviation with the reality for linear damage rule (Miner rule). Although many non-linear fatigue damage accumulation models can deal with the effect of load sequences, load interaction effect cannot be ignored and it plays an important role in damage accumulation behavior. This paper describes the damage evolution behavior based on nonlinear damage rule under variable amplitude loading. A new method to describe the load interaction effects is proposed, it is assumed that the load ratio between adjacent stress levels is used to present this phenomenon. Thereafter, the method is introduced to a non-linear damage model, and a modified model is developed to predict the residual lifetime. Four categories of experimental data sets from literatures are employed to investigate the validity of the proposed model. The results indicate that the modified model shows a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical results. It is also found that the modified model demonstrates an improvement in prediction accuracy over the primary model and Miner rule. Furthermore, the modified model can be easily implemented with the use of Wöhler curve only.

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