This paper discusses the terramechanics models developed to incorporate a physics-based, three dimensional deformable terrain database model with vehicle dynamics mobility simulation software. The vehicle model is contained in Chrono, a research-grade C++ based Application Programming Interface (API) that enables accurate multibody simulations. The terrain database is also contained in a C++ based API, and includes a general tire-terrain interaction model which is modular to allow for any tire model that supports the Standard Tire Interface (STI) to operate on the terrain. Furthermore, the ability to handle arbitrary, three dimensional traction element geometry allows for tracked vehicles (or vehicle hulls) to also interact with the deformable terrain. The governing equations of the terrain are based on a soil compaction model that includes both the propagation of subsoil stresses due to vehicular loads, and the resulting visco-elastic-plastic stress/strain on the affected soil volume. Non-flat, non-homogenous and non-uniform soil densities, rutting, repeated loading and strain hardening effects are all captured in the vehicle mobility response as a result of the general 3-D tire/terrain model developed. Pedo-transfer functions allow for the calculation of the soil mechanics model parameters from existing soil measurements. This terrain model runs at near real-time speed, due to parallel CPU and GPU implementation. Results that exercise the force models developed with the 3-D tire geometry are presented and discussed for a kinematically driven tire and a full vehicle simulation.

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