Optimization of smart products requires optimizing both the artifact design and its controller. The presence of coupling between the design and control problems is an important consideration in choosing the system optimization method. Several measures of coupling have been proposed based on different viewpoints of the system. In this paper, two measures of coupling, a vector based on optimality conditions and a matrix derived from an extension of the global sensitivity equations, are shown to be related under certain conditions and to be consistent in their coupling determination. The measures’ physical interpretation and relative ease of use are discussed using the example of a positioning gantry. A further relation is derived between one measure and a modified sequential formulation that would give results sufficiently close to the true solutions.

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