Mathematical models of the harmonic drive have been developed, and their effects on manipulator dynamics have been examined. The harmonic drive is modelled as a flexible gear with a high gear reduction ratio. The recursive Newton-Euler dynamic formulation is applied to deriving the system equations of motion that include the effects of the geared actuation. The equations include not only the nonlinear dynamic coupling between rotors and links but the gyroscopic effect due to the spinning rotors. Different modelling assumptions creates four models and their time responses are compared. As an example, a seven degree of freedom robot was chosen to make comparisons in time responses.

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