In the process of operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, it is required to have technology and equipment for cutting, forming and repairing under specific environments such as radiation, underwater and remote control. Traditional machining methods have limitations in this application environment. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a special machining method that uses a discharge electrode with a specific geometrical shape to conduct electrical erosion on a metal (conductive) part and erode the conductive material, so as to achieve the purpose of processing. In this paper, underwater EDM technology and equipment of nuclear power plant are studied, a kind of underwater EDM device is designed, the working principle of the device is expounded, the structure and system design of the mechanical and electrical system are introduced. At the same time, the application of underwater EDM technology in nuclear power plant was studied in combination with the cutting requirements of welding irradiation monitoring sample of the reactor pressure vessel. Based on the key technologies that have been solved in the research of underwater EDM technology and equipment of nuclear power plant, the overall technical scheme of welding irradiation monitoring sample cutting device is given, and the cutting results are analyzed.

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