This paper presents the numerical optimization of a tip appendage design for the passive control of tip leakage vortices in subsonic axial flow cooling fans. The studied class of fan was designed in the conventional manner without the consideration of tip clearance effects. As such, the objective of this investigation is the improvement of the aerodynamic performance characteristics of the datum fan through consideration of the blade tip geometry. Based on previous studies involving fan performance enhancement using various tip end-plate configurations, the most promising end-plate geometry which is found to best improve the fan’s performance characteristics is selected for further development through optimization. Before the optimization process can begin, initialization of the chosen end-plate’s design space using the Design of Experiments (DoE) technique is performed. Formulation of the response surface is based on a multi-objective multi-point objective function which considers the fan’s various performance metrics. Considering the optimization process, the Design and Analysis of Computer aided Experiments (DACE) method is used in the development of the Kriging based surrogate model’s (SM) database. The resulting database is coupled with an Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm which completes the workflow of the optimization routine. The Pareto-front of non-dominated solutions is used to guide the optimal design selection, on which the experimental evaluations are based. The experimental results of the optimized design indicate improved fan performance characteristics at greater than peak efficiency flow rates. This design is found to increase the datum fan’s design point performance characteristics by a value of 32.90 percent in total-to-static pressure rise and a 7.66 percentage point increase in total-to-static efficiency at the fan’s design speed of 722 rpm.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.