Humidified Gas Turbines promise a significant increase in efficiency compared to the dry gas turbine cycle. In single cycle applications, efficiencies up to 60% seem possible with humidified turbines. Additionally, the steam effectively inhibits the formation of NOx emissions and also allows for operating the gas turbine on hydrogen-rich fuels. The current study is conducted within the European Advanced Grant Research Project GREENEST. The premixed combustion at ultra wet conditions is investigated for natural gas, hydrogen, and mixtures of both fuels, covering lower heating values between 27 MJ/kg and 120 MJ/kg. In addition to the experiments, the combustion process is also examined numerically. The flow field and the fuel-air mixing of the burner were investigated in a water tunnel using Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence. Gas-fired tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure, inlet temperatures between 200°C and 370°C, and degrees of humidity from 0% to 50%. Steam efficiently inhibits the formation of NOx emissions. For all tested fuels, both NOx and CO emissions of below 10 ppm were measured up to near-stoichiometric gas composition at wet conditions. Operation on pure hydrogen is possible up to very high degrees of humidity, but even a relatively low steam content prevents flame flashback. Increasing hydrogen content leads to a more compact flame, which is anchored closer to the burner outlet, while increasing steam content moves the flame downstream and increases the flame volume. In addition to the experiments, the combustion process was modeled using a reactor network. The predicted NOx and CO emission levels agree well with the experimental results over a wide range of temperatures, steam content, and fuel composition.

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