Research Papers

Comparison of Grasping Performance of Tendon and Linkage Transmission Systems in an Electric-Powered Low-Cost Hand Prosthesis

[+] Author and Article Information
F. Javier Andrés

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Construction,
Universitat Jaume I,
Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n,
Castellón 12071, Spain
e-mail: fandres@uji.es

Antonio Pérez-González

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Construction,
Universitat Jaume I,
Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n,
Castellón 12071, Spain
e-mail: aperez@uji.es

Carlos Rubert

Department of Computer
Science and Engineering,
Universitat Jaume I,
Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n,
Castellón 12071, Spain
e-mail: cescuder@uji.es

José Fuentes

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Construction,
Universitat Jaume I,
Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n,
Castellón 12071, Spain
e-mail: ffuentes@uji.es

Bruno Sospedra

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Construction,
Universitat Jaume I,
Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n,
Castellón 12071, Spain
e-mail: al132267@uji.es

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received January 9, 2018; final manuscript received May 25, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Veronica J. Santos.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 11(1), 011018 (Dec 24, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: JMR-18-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4040491 History: Received January 09, 2018; Revised May 25, 2018

The popularization of fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology and open-source microcontrollers has permitted the explosion of electric hand prostheses that can be designed, shared, built, and operated at a low cost, under the Do It Yourself premise. Patients with limb reductions at the transcarpal or transradial level are best candidates to benefit from them. They manage the gross location with the remaining limb, while the built-in motors offer the possibility of controlling each finger independently. The number of mobile joints along the finger and the type of transmission can determine the quality of the grasp. Moreover, there is a need of objective procedures to assess the functionality of complete prototypes at reasonable effort. This work makes a critical review of the different transmission systems that can be found in most low-cost finger designs: linkage and tendon mechanisms. Mechanical performance has been analyzed using a standardized model of the index finger. Furthermore, robotic grasp quality metrics (GQM) have been used to evaluate by simulation the functionality of complete devices. Neither finger transmission design appeared clearly advantageous in the range of flexion studied. The evaluation of the complete devices gave slightly better quality grades for the linkage-driven model. Instead, tendon-driven model achieved a greater quantity of successful grasps. In the current state of art, some other aspects may have led to a dominant situation of the tendon-driven hands: fewer number of parts to be printed, easier assembly for a nonexpert user, advantageous in pursuit of lightweight devices.

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Fig. 1

Dorsal (above) and palmar (below) views of the BruJa-Hand model-T (right) and model-B (left)

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Fig. 2

Phalange dimensions nomenclature

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Fig. 3

Extended and flexed postures for the synthesis of each finger in model-B. The two sketches overlapped on the proximal phalange allow finding BH¯ and DH¯.

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Fig. 4

Crank-slider and four-bar mechanisms for the thumb at models B and BT. Two DC motors are marked in stripes.

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Fig. 5

Section of the index finger of model-T at limit F/E positions showing passing sheaths at F-D-B (above). Elastic bands for extension on the dorsum of the finger (below).

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Fig. 6

Thumb of the model-T at maximum F/E and passing points B-D

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Fig. 7

Visualization of the imported BruJa-Hand model-B in the OpenRave graphics window

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Fig. 8

Sequential analysis of MA for models B and BT (left), and T (right)

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Fig. 9

Yale-CMU-Berkeley set objects [44] modeled in OpenHand simulator

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Fig. 10

Angle in PIP (θ2) and DIP (θ3) joints versus angle in the joint A (θ1) were plotted for each finger of model-B&BT. Fitted third degree polynomials for the index are shown.

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Fig. 11

Grid of points and approach rays around one object. Two tentative grasps are shown.

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Fig. 12

Efficiency of the move up to a certain degree of flexion in joint A (Ef) and mechanical advantage (MA), as a function of the rotation angle in joint A, for both finger models (B&BT, T)

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Fig. 13

Mechanical advantage (above) and Ef (below) sensitivities for 1 mm displacements on local axes of points B, D, or F, for model-B&BT (dotted), and model-T (gray)

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Fig. 14

Comparison between tentative grasps (for both models), and successful grasps with each model

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Fig. 15

Model-B&BT, (left) and model-T (right) exemplifying successful grasps at the apple object



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