0
Research Papers

A Three-Dimensional Printed, Nonassembly, Passive Dynamic Walking Toy: Design and Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Christian L. Treviño

Robotics and Motion Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at San Antonio,
One UTSA Circle,
San Antonio, TX 78249

Joseph D. Galloway, II

Robotics and Motion Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at San Antonio,
One UTSA Circle,
San Antonio, TX 78249

Pranav A. Bhounsule

Robotics and Motion Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at San Antonio,
One UTSA Circle,
San Antonio, TX 78249
e-mail: pranav.bhounsule@utsa.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received July 16, 2017; final manuscript received June 6, 2018; published online September 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sarah Bergbreiter.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 10(6), 061009 (Sep 21, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: JMR-17-1211; doi: 10.1115/1.4040634 History: Received July 16, 2017; Revised June 06, 2018

In this paper, we present the redesign and analysis of a century old walking toy. Historically, the toy is made up of two wooden pieces including a rear leg and a front leg and body (as a single piece) that are attached to each other by means of a pin joint. When the toy is placed on a ramp and given a slight perturbation, it ambles downhill powered only by gravity. Before the toy can walk successfully, it needs careful tuning of its geometry and mass distribution. The traditional technique of manual wood carving offers very limited flexibility to tune the mass distribution and geometry. We have re-engineered the toy to be three-dimensional (3D) printed as a single integrated assembly that includes a pin joint and the two legs. After 3D printing, we have to manually break-off the weakly held support material to allow movement of the pin joint. It took us 6 iterations to progressively tune the leg geometry, mass distribution, and hinge joint tolerances to create our most successful working prototype. The final 3D printed toy needs minimal postprocessing and walks reliably on a 7.87 deg downhill ramp. Next, we created a computer model of the toy to explain its motion and stability. Parameter studies reveal that the toy exhibits stable walking motion for a fairly wide range of mass distributions. Although 3D printing has been used to create nonassembly articulated kinematic mechanisms, this is the first study that shows that it is possible to create dynamics-based nonassembly mechanisms such as walking toys.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Fallis, G. , 1888, “ Walking Toy,” U.S. Patent No. 376588.
Bechstein, B. , 1912, “ Improvements in and Relating to Toys,” UK Patent No. 7453.
Mahan, J. J. , and Moran, J. F. , 1909, “ Toy,” U.S. Patent No. 1007316.
Ravert, W. , 1932, “ Walking Toy,” U.S. Patent 1,860,476.
Wilson, J. E. , 1938, “ Walking Toy,” U.S. Patent No. 2140275.
McGeer, T. , 1990, “ Passive Dynamic Walking,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 9(2), p. 62. [CrossRef]
Collins, S. , Wisse, M. , and Ruina, A. , 2001, “ A Three-Dimensional Passive-Dynamic Walking Robot With Two Legs and Knees,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 20(7), p. 607. [CrossRef]
Owaki, D. , Koyama, M. , Yamaguchi, S. , Kubo, S. , and Ishiguro, A. , 2011, “ A 2-d Passive-Dynamic-Running Biped With Elastic Elements,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 27(1), pp. 156–162. [CrossRef]
Coleman, M. , and Ruina, A. , 1998, “ An Uncontrolled Walking Toy That Cannot Stand Still,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 80(16), pp. 3658–3661. [CrossRef]
Steinkamp, P. , 2017, “ A Statically Unstable Passive Hopper: Design Evolution,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 9(1), p. 011016. [CrossRef]
Gomes, M. W. , and Ahlin, K. , 2015, “ Quiet (Nearly Collisionless) Robotic Walking,” IEEE International Conference Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Seattle, WA, May. 26–30, pp. 5761–5766.
Iida, F. , Dravid, R. , and Paul, C. , 2002, “ Design and Control of a Pendulum Driven Hopping Robot,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference Intelligent Robots and Systems, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sept. 30–Oct. 4, pp. 2141–2146.
Zoghzoghy, J. , and Hurmuzlu, Y. , 2014, “ Pony II Robot: Inertially Actuated Baton With Double-Action Pendulums,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2014-6189.
Reis, M. , and Iida, F. , 2014, “ An Energy-Efficient Hopping Robot Based on Free Vibration of a Curved Beam,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 19(1), pp. 300–311. [CrossRef]
Collins, S. H. , and Ruina, A. , 2005, “ A Bipedal Walking Robot With Efficient and Human-like Gait,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp. 1983–1988.
Jansen, T. , 2016, “ Strandbeest,” World Wide Web Electronic Publication, Delft, The Netherlands, accessed July 11, 2018, http://www.strandbeest.com/
Coros, S. , Thomaszewski, B. , Noris, G. , Sueda, S. , Forberg, M. , Sumner, R. W. , Matusik, W. , and Bickel, B. , 2013, “ Computational Design of Mechanical Characters,” ACM Trans. Graph. (TOG), 32(4), p. 83. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2461953
Lipson, H. , Moon, F. C. , Hai, J. , and Paventi, C. , 2005, “ 3D Printing the History of Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 127(5), pp. 1029–1033. [CrossRef]
Haberland, M. , 2007, “ Make Your Own Wilson Walkie,” Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, accessed July 11, 2018, http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research/history/WilsonWalker/index.php
Stöckli, F. , Modica, F. , and Shea, K. , 2016, “ Designing Passive Dynamic Walking Robots for Additive Manufacture,” Rapid Prototyping J., 22(5), pp. 842–847. [CrossRef]
Strogatz, S. H. , 2006, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Engineering, Perseus Publishing, New York.
Brown, D. , 2016, Tracker, Video Analysis and Modeling Tool, World Wide Web Electronic Publication, Aptos, CA.
Stiesberg, G. , van Oijen, T. , and Ruina, A. , 2017, “ Steinkamp's Toy Can Hop 100 Times but Can't Stand Up,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 9(1), p. 011017. [CrossRef]
Bhounsule, P. A. , Cortell, J. , Grewal, A. , Hendriksen, B. , Karssen, J. D. , Paul, C. , and Ruina, A. , 2014, “ Low-Bandwidth Reflex-Based Control for Lower Power Walking: 65 Km on a Single Battery Charge,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 33(10), pp. 1305–1321. [CrossRef]
Garcia, M. , Chatterjee, A. , Ruina, A. , and Coleman, M. , 1998, “ The Simplest Walking Model: Stability, Complexity, and Scaling,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120(2), pp. 281–288. [CrossRef]
Thuilot, B. , Goswami, A. , and Espiau, B. , 1997, “ Bifurcation and Chaos in a Simple Passive Bipedal Gait,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, NM, Apr. 25, pp. 792–798.
MacCurdy, R. , Katzschmann, R. , Kim, Y. , and Rus, D. , 2016, “ Printable Hydraulics: A Method for Fabricating Robots by 3D Co-Printing Solids and Liquids,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, Sweden, May. 16–21, pp. 3878–3885.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Wilson Walkie [1]: (a) front view, (b) side view, and (c) A 3D printed Wilson Walkie and wooden toy in the inset [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Ravert toy: (a) perspective view, (b) toy duck, and (c) section view of the toy duck (taken from [3])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The final working prototype

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sectional view of the design: (a) hinge design with tolerances. All dimensions are in cm. Shaded areas represent hollow sections; (b) in-fill pattern created by CURA, the postprocessing software for the 3D printer.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Robot model for simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Sequence of phases and transitions used for simulation model: a single and doubled curved arrow on the figure indicates that the toy is a one or two degree-of-freedom system in that particular phase

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Phase portrait for the front and rear leg. See corresponding letters in Fig. 7 and Eq. (1).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparing simulation with experimental data. Positions of various points on the toy as a function of time. (a) Pin joint, (b) bottom corner of the front foot (nearest to the rear foot), and (c) bottom corner of the rear foot (nearest to the front foot).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

A single step of the walker: (top panel) One step from video. (Bottom panel) Animation from the simulation. See the video online for a comparison.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of varying r, w1, and c1 on maximum eigenvalue and velocity. (a)–(c) Maximum eigenvalue and (d)– (f) velocity nondimensionalized by gr. Each parameter r, w1, and c1 is nondimensionalized by its nominal parameter given in Table 1. The values for our design are shown using a black dot.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In