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Design Innovation Paper

Ball and Beam Balancing Mechanism Actuated With Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

[+] Author and Article Information
Željko Šitum

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval
Architecture,
Department of Robotics and Production System
Automation,
University of Zagreb,
Ivana Lučića 5,
Zagreb HR-10000, Croatia
e-mail: zeljko.situm@fsb.hr

Petar Trslić

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval
Architecture,
Department of Robotics and Production System
Automation,
University of Zagreb,
Ivana Lučića 5,
Zagreb HR-10000, Croatia

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Centre for Robotics and Intelligent Systems (CRIS), University of Limerick, Castletroy, Limerick, V94 T9PX, Ireland.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received May 19, 2017; final manuscript received May 25, 2018; published online June 27, 2018. Editor: Venkat Krovi.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 10(5), 055001 (Jun 27, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JMR-17-1156; doi: 10.1115/1.4040490 History: Received May 19, 2017; Revised May 25, 2018

The paper presents the results of modeling and control of an original and unique ball-on-beam system with a pneumatic artificial muscle pair in an antagonistic configuration. This system represents a class of under-actuated, high-order nonlinear systems, which are characterized by an open-loop unstable equilibrium point. Since pneumatic muscles have elastic, nonlinear characteristics, they are more difficult to control. Considering that an additional nonlinearity is added to the system which makes it harder to stabilize. The nonlinear mathematical model has been derived based on the physical model of the ball-on-beam mechanism, the beam rotating by using an antagonistic muscle pair and the pneumatic muscle actuated by a proportional valve. Based on the nonlinear model, the linearized equations of motion have been derived and a control-oriented model has been developed, which is used in the state feedback controller design procedure. The proposed state feedback controller has been verified by means of computer simulations and experimentally on the laboratory setup. The simulation and experimental results have shown that the state feedback controller can stabilize the ball-on-beam system around an equilibrium position in the presence of external disturbances and to track a reference trajectory with a small tracking error.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of the ball and beam system actuated with PAMs

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Fig. 1

Ball and beam system actuated with PAMs: (a) photo and (b) schematic diagram

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Fig. 2

(a) Ball position measuring system and (b) beam angle measuring system

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Fig. 4

Transient response of muscle pressures: (a) varying step signal and (b) zoomed part of figure

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Fig. 5

Simulation results of pneumatically actuated ball and beam system

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Fig. 6

Experimental results of pneumatically actuated ball and beam system: (a) balancing the ball to the center, (b) square wave reference signal, and (c) sinusoidal reference signal

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