0
Research Papers

Kinematic Analysis and Design of a Novel Shoulder Exoskeleton Using a Double Parallelogram Linkage

[+] Author and Article Information
Simon Christensen

Department of Material and Production,
Aalborg University,
Aalborg 9220, Denmark
e-mail: sic@mp.aau.dk

Shaoping Bai

Department of Material and Production,
Aalborg University,
Aalborg 9220, Denmark
e-mail: shb@mp.aau.dk

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received July 3, 2017; final manuscript received April 20, 2018; published online May 31, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Robert J. Wood.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 10(4), 041008 (May 31, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: JMR-17-1199; doi: 10.1115/1.4040132 History: Received July 03, 2017; Revised April 20, 2018

The design of an innovative spherical mechanism with three degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) for a shoulder joint exoskeleton is presented in this paper. The spherical mechanism is designed with a double parallelogram linkage (DPL), which connects two revolute joints to implement the motion as a spherical joint, while maintaining the remote center (RC) of rotation. The design has several new features compared to the current state-of-the-art: (1) a relative large range of motion (RoM) free of singularity, (2) high overall stiffness, (3) lightweight, and (4) compact, which make it suitable for assistive exoskeletons. In this paper, the kinematics and singularities are analyzed for the spherical mechanism and DPL. Dimensional analysis is carried out to find the design with maximum RoM. The new shoulder joint is finally designed, constructed, and integrated in a four degree-of-freedom wearable upper-body exoskeleton. A finite element analysis (FEA) study is used to assess the structural stiffness of the proposed design in comparison to the conventional 3R mechanism.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sylla, N. , Bonnet, V. , Colledani, F. , and Fraisse, P. , 2014, “ Ergonomic Contribution of ABLE Exoskeleton in Automotive Industry,” Int. J. Ind. Ergonom., 44(4), pp. 475–481. [CrossRef]
Bogue, R. , 2009, “ Exoskeletons and Robotic Prosthetics: A Review of Recent Developments,” Ind. Robot: An Int. J., 36(5), pp. 421–427. [CrossRef]
Yamamoto, K. , Hyodo, K. , Ishii, M. , and Matsuo, T. , 2001, “ Development of Power Assisting Suit for Assisting Nurse Labor,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. Ser. C, 67(657), pp. 1499–1506. [CrossRef]
Lo, H. S. , and Xie, S. Q. , 2012, “ Exoskeleton Robots for Upper-Limb Rehabilitation: State of the Art and Future Prospects,” Med. Eng. Phys., 34(3), pp. 261–268. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gopura, R. , Bandara, D. , Kiguchi, K. , and Man, G. , 2015, “ Developments in Hardware Systems of Active Upper-Limb Exoskeleton Robots: A Review,” Rob. Auton. Syst., 75(Pt. B), pp. 203–220. [CrossRef]
Engin, A. E. , 1980, “ On the Biomechanics of the Shoulder Complex,” J. Biomech., 13(7), pp. 575–590. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Naidu, D. , Stopforth, R. , Bright, G. , and Davrajh, S. , 2011, “ A 7 DOF Exoskeleton Arm: Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand Mechanism for Assistance to Upper Limb Disabled Individuals,” IEEE AFRICON Conference, Livingstone, Zambia, Sept. 13–15,pp. 13–15.
Ball, S. J. , Brown, I. E. , and Scott, S. H. , 2007, “ MEDARM: A Rehabilitation Robot With 5DOF at the Shoulder Complex,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Zurich, Switzerland, Sept. 4–7.
Nef, T. , Guidali, M. , and Riener, R. , 2009, “ ARMin III Arm Therapy Exoskeleton With an Ergonomic Shoulder Actuation,” Appl. Bionics Biomech., 6(2), pp. 127–142. [CrossRef]
Carmichael, M. G. , and Liu, D. K. , 2015, “ Human Biomechanical Model Based Optimal Design of Assistive Shoulder Exoskeleton,” Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 9th International Conference, L. Mejias , P. Corke , and J. Roberts , eds., Springer International, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 245–258.
Perry, J. C. , Rosen, J. , and Burns, S. , 2007, “ Upper-Limb Powered Exoskeleton Design,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 12(4), pp. 408–417. [CrossRef]
Jung, Y. , and Bae, J. , 2013, “ Kinematic Analysis of a 5 DOF Upper-Limb Exoskeleton With a Tilted and Vertically Translating Shoulder Joint,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Wollongong, Australia, July 9–12, pp. 1643–1648.
Yan, H. , Yang, C. , Zhang, Y. , and Wang, Y. , 2014, “ Design and Validation of a Compatible 3-Degrees of Freedom Shoulder Exoskeleton With an Adaptive Center of Rotation,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(7), p. 071006.
Chakarov, D. , Veneva, I. , Tsveov, M. , and Tiankov, T. , 2014, “ New Exoskeleton Arm Concept Design and Actuation for Haptic Interaction With Virtual Objects,” J. Theor. Appl. Mech., 44(4), pp. 3–14. [CrossRef]
Lo, H. S. , and Xie, S. , 2014, “ Optimization and Analysis of a Redundant 4R Spherical Wrist Mechanism for a Shoulder Exoskeleton,” Robotica, 32(8), pp. 1191–1211. [CrossRef]
Klein, J. , Spencer, S. , Allington, J. , Bobrow, J. E. , and Reinkensmeyer, D. J. , 2010, “ Optimization of a Parallel Shoulder Mechanism to Achieve a High-Force, Low-Mass, Robotic-Arm Exoskeleton,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 26(4), pp. 710–715. [CrossRef]
Hunt, J. , Lee, H. , and Artemiadis, P. , 2016, “ A Novel Shoulder Exoskeleton Robot Using Parallel Actuation and a Passive Slip Interface,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 9(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, H. C. , Chen, D. F. , Chien, L. , and Lan, C. C. , 2017, “ Design of a Parallel Actuated Exoskeleton for Adaptive and Safe Robotic Shoulder Rehabilitation,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 22(5), pp. 2034–2045. [CrossRef]
Cui, X. , Chen, W. , Jin, X. , and Agrawal, S. K. , 2017, “ Design of a 7-DOF Cable-Driven Arm Exoskeleton (CAREX-7) and a Controller for Dexterous Motion Training or Assistance,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 22(1), pp. 161–172. [CrossRef]
Xu, K. , Zhao, J. , Qiu, D. , and Wang, Y. , 2014, “ A Pilot Study of a Continuum Shoulder Exoskeleton for Anatomy Adaptive Assistances,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 6(4), p. 041011. [CrossRef]
Bai, S. , Christensen, S. , and Islam, M. R. U. , 2017, “ An Upper-Body Exoskeleton With a Novel Shoulder Mechanism for Assistive Applications,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Munich, Germany, July 3–7, pp. 1041–1046.
Koo, D. , Chang, P. H. , Sohn, M. K. , and Shin, J. H. , 2011, “ Shoulder Mechanism Design of an Exoskeleton Robot for Stroke Patient Rehabilitation,” IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), Zurich, Switzerland, June 29–July 1, pp. 8–13.
Culham, E. , and Peat, M. , 1993, “ Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder Complex,” J. Orthopadeic Sports Phys. Ther., 18(1), pp. 342–350. [CrossRef]
Christensen, S. , and Bai, S. , 2017, “ A Novel Shoulder Mechanism With a Double Parallelogram Linkage for Upper-Body Exoskeletons,” Second International Symposium on Wearable Robotics (WeRob), Segovia, Spain, Oct. 18–21, pp. 51–56.
Li, J. , Zhang, G. , Xing, Y. , Liu, H. , and Wang, S. , 2014, “ A Class of 2-Degree-of-Freedom Planar Remote Center-of-Motion Mechanisms Based on Virtual Parallelograms,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 6(3), p. 031014. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , Xing, Y. , Liang, K. , and Wang, S. , 2015, “ Kinematic Design of a Novel Spatial Remote Center-of-Motion Mechanism for Minimally Invasive Surgical Robot,” J. Med. Dev., 9(1), p. 011003. [CrossRef]
Hadavand, M. , Mirbagheri, A. , Behzadipour, S. , and Farahmand, F. , 2014, “ A Novel Remote Center of Motion Mechanism for the Force-Reflective Master Robot of Haptic Tele-Surgery Systems,” Int. J. Med. Rob. Comput. Assisted Surg., 10(2), pp. 129–139. [CrossRef]
Bai, G. , Li, D. , Wei, S. , and Liao, Q. , 2014, “ Kinematics and Synthesis of a Type of Mechanisms With Multiple Remote Centers of Motion,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 228(18), pp. 3430–3440. [CrossRef]
Spong, M. W. , Hutchinson, S. , and Vidyasagar, M. , 2005, Robot Modeling and Control, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Peebles, L. , Norris, B. , and Trade, G. B. D. , 1998, Adultdata: The Handbook of Adult Anthropometric and Strength Measurements: Data for Design Safety, Government Consumer Safety Research, Nottingham, UK.
Teng, C. P. , Bai, S. , and Angeles, J. , 2007, “ Shape Synthesis in Mechanical Design,” Acta Polytechnica, Czech Tech. Univ. Prague, 47(6), pp. 56–62.
Wu, G. , Bai, S. , and Kepler, J. , 2014, “ Mobile Platform Center Shift in Spherical Parallel Manipulators With Flexible Limbs,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 75, pp. 12–26. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Working principle of DPL in the shoulder mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

RoM of the shoulder complex

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The shoulder complex: (a) segments and joints and (b) scapulohumeral rhythm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of shoulder joint mechanisms using (a) three-revolute joints, (b) two-revolute joints and a circular guide, (c) three-revolute joints with one placed at the elbow, and (d) a redundant joint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Kinematic model of the shoulder mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The DPL with ϕ1=30deg and ϕ2=10deg in a kinematic configuration with (a) ψ=50deg, (b) ψ=−ϕ1, (c) ψ=180deg−ϕ1, (d) ψ=−ϕ2, and (e) ψ=180deg−ϕ2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The manipulability index of the DPM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Maximum and minimum internal/external rotation of the shoulder mechanism for (a) baseline design, (b) variation of lengths of L1 and L4, (c) variation of lengths of L2 and L3, (d) variation of length relation between L2 and L3, and (e) variation of offset angles ϕ1 and ϕ2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The shoulder joint mechanism in the AAU exoskeleton in (a) 0 deg shoulder extension, (b) 170 deg shoulder flexion, (c) 0 deg shoulder adduction, (d) 120 deg shoulder abduction, (e) 90 deg shoulder internal rotation, and (f) 20 deg shoulder external rotation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Workspace analysis of the DPM (cyan) within the human arm workspace (magenta): (a) coordinate setup, (b) isotropic view, (c) front plane view human workspace, (d) front plane view of DPM workspace, (e) sagittal plane view of human workspace, and (f) sagittal plane view of DPM workspace

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Spherical shoulder joint built with parallelogram mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The shoulder joint mechanism in the 4DOF AAU exoskeleton, with joints 1, 3, and 4 active and joint 2 passive

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Structural stiffness analysis of DPM and 3R spherical mechanisms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Displacement of the RC of rotation (RC-displacement) of the DPM and 3R spherical mechanisms, under a force of 10 N along the x-, y-, and z-axis of the end effector frame

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In