Research Papers

Locomotion of a Mini Bristle Robot With Inertial Excitation

[+] Author and Article Information
Tadeusz Majewski

Department of Industrial &
Mechanical Engineering,
Universidad de las Américas-Puebla,
Ex. Hacienda Sta. Catarina Martir,
Cholula 72810, Puebla, Mexico
e-mail: tadeusz.majewski@udlap.mx

Dariusz Szwedowicz

Centro Nacional de Investigacion y
Desarrollo Tecnologico,
Cuernavaca 82490, Morelos, Mexico
e-mail: d.sz@cenidet.edu.mx

Maciej Majewski

Power Alstom,
Warsaw 02-758, Poland
e-mail: maciej.majewski@power.alstom.com

Manuscript received November 2, 2016; final manuscript received August 8, 2017; published online September 26, 2017. Assoc. Editor: K. H. Low.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 9(6), 061008 (Sep 26, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: JMR-16-1339; doi: 10.1115/1.4037892 History: Received November 02, 2016; Revised August 08, 2017

The paper presents a theory of vibratory locomotion, a prototype, and the results of experiments on mini robot, which moves as a result of inertial excitation provided by two electric motors. The robot is equipped with elastic bristles which are in contact with the supporting surface. Vibration of the robot generates the friction force which can push the robot forward or backward. The paper presents a novel model of interaction between the bristles and the supporting surface. The friction force (its magnitude and sense) is defined as a function of the robot velocity and the robot's vibrations. The analysis is done for a constant coefficient of friction and a smooth surface. Depending on the motors' speed, one may obtain a rectilinear or a curvilinear motion, without jumping or losing contact with the substrate. The results of the simulation show which way the robot moves, its mean velocity of locomotion, change of the slipping velocity of the bristles and its influence on the normal and the friction force. A prototype was built and experiments were performed with it.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Robots , Friction , Vibration
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Fig. 1

Side and front view of the robot: 1—body of the robot, 2—bristles, 3—motors, 4—supporting plane

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Fig. 2

Reference frames and top view of the robot

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Fig. 3

Vertical displacement yA, deformation of the bristle ΔB and normal force NB

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Fig. 4

Forces acting on the left bristle for vsB1 > 0

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Fig. 5

Velocity of the tip B1 from vertical motion

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Fig. 6

Slip velocity of the bristle's tip

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Fig. 7

Forces in the horizontal plane (OC⌢=s)

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Fig. 8

Behavior of the robot with the excitation m1e1 = m2e2 = 1 gmm, μ = 0.35, and f = 120 Hz: (a) position x(t); (b) instant velocity; (c) vertical vibration; (d), (e) slipping velocity at B1; (f), (g) normal force; and (h), (i) friction force

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Fig. 9

Magnitude of the impulse of vibratory force for one cycle of vibration

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Fig. 10

Slipping velocity (a) and friction force (b) for one cycle of vibration if m1e1 = m2e2 = 1gmm and f = 120 Hz

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Fig. 11

Behavior of the robot with the resultant unbalance 4 gmm and frequency 120 Hz: (a) position, (b) vertical vibration, (c) instant velocity, (d) slipping velocity, (e) normal reaction, and (f) friction force

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Fig. 12

Average velocity of the robot versus frequency of excitation: (a) unbalance ∑me = 2gmm and (b) unbalance ∑me = 4 gmm (μ = 0.4, δ = 0.5 rad, ω = 2πf)

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Fig. 13

Locomotion velocity versus coefficient of friction: (a) and velocity versus angle of the bristle inclination and (b) for f = 100 Hz and ∑me = 2 gmm

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Fig. 14

Behavior of the robot for curvilinear motion for ∑me = 2 gmm, f1 = 100 Hz, f2 = 200 Hz: (a) path of the robot; (b), (c), (d), (e), (f) coordinates versus time; (g), (h) components of the slip velocity of the left bristles; (i) velocity of the robot locomotion; (j), (k) normal and friction force of the left bristles; and (l) friction force of the right bristles

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Fig. 15

Behavior of the robot for curvilinear motion for ∑me = 4 gmm, f1 = 100 Hz, f2 = 200 Hz: (a) position on the path; (b), (c) vertical and angular vibrations; (d) components of the slip velocity of the left bristles; (e), (f) friction forces of both bristles; and (g) velocity of the robot

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Fig. 16

Robot on the inclined plane (a), the velocity versus the angle of inclination for total static unbalance ∑me = 2 mm (b), and for the static unbalance ∑me = 4 gmm (c)

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Fig. 17

Trajectory of the robot locomotion with different shift angle, when f1 = f2 = 120 Hz, δ = 0.7 rad, μ = 0.35 ∑me = 2 gmm; φ = π/2 (a) and φ = π (b), ∑me = 4 gmm; φ = π/2 (c) and φ = π (d)

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Fig. 18

Velocity of locomotion as a function of the angle φ when f1 = f2 = 120 Hz, α = 0.7 rad, μ = 0.35

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Fig. 19

Prototype of mini-robot (a) and remote control (b): 1—rechargeable battery, 2—infrared receiver, 3—DC motors, 4—Arduino Nano, and 5—unbalance, 6—acrylic base (50 × 80 mm), 7—bristles, 8—power On/Off, 9—“Up”, 10—“Down,” 11—“Right,” 12—“Left”

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Fig. 20

Acceleration of the robot in a horizontal (a) and vertical direction (b)

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Fig. 21

Frequency spectrum of vibration in a horizontal (a) and vertical direction (b)




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