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Research Papers

Modeling of Dive Maneuvers for Executing Autonomous Dives With a Flapping Wing Air Vehicle

[+] Author and Article Information
Luke J. Roberts

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland College Park,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: lukerob1@umd.edu

Hugh A. Bruck

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland College Park,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: bruck@umd.edu

S. K. Gupta

Department of Aerospace and
Mechanical Engineering,
University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, CA 90089
e-mail: guptask@usc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 21, 2016; final manuscript received August 18, 2017; published online October 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Robert J. Wood.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 9(6), 061010 (Oct 04, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: JMR-16-1181; doi: 10.1115/1.4037760 History: Received June 21, 2016; Revised August 18, 2017

This paper is focused on design of dive maneuvers that can be performed outdoors on flapping wing air vehicles (FWAVs) with a minimal amount of on-board computing capability. We present a simple computational model that provides accuracy of 5 m in open loop operation mode for outdoor dives under wind speeds of up to 3 m/s. This model is executed using a low power, on-board processor. We have also demonstrated that the platform can independently execute roll control through tail positioning, and dive control through wing positioning to produce safe dive behaviors. These capabilities were used to successfully demonstrate autonomous dive maneuvers on the Robo Raven platform developed at the University of Maryland.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Robo Raven V (top view)

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Fig. 2

Robo Raven V close up view of the propellers mounted on laser cut Delrin arms controlled by servo motors

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Fig. 3

CAD representation of the dive sequence. Dives are executed during normal flapping flight (flapping at 4 Hz) and held for a desired time after which flapping flight is resumed.

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Fig. 4

Video frame extracted from on-board video footage at a typical flying height. The text is not readable.

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Fig. 5

Video frame extracted from on-board video camera footage of a close up view of the sign during a dive. The text is now readable.

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Fig. 6

Free body diagram of the Robo Raven plate model (side view)

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Fig. 7

Free body diagram of the Robo Raven plate model (front view)

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Fig. 8

Free body diagram of the Robo Raven plate model (isometric view)

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Fig. 9

Setup for measuring rotational drag coefficient. Robo Raven placed on a rod rotating at its center of gravity about the y-axis.

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Fig. 10

Dive paths with initial velocity varied from 5 to 12 m/s in 0.26 m/s increments. θP0 = −40 deg, θD = 40 deg.

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Fig. 11

Dive paths with initial velocity varied from 5 to 12 m/s for θD = 25 deg, 40 deg, 55 deg, and 70 deg. θP0 = −40 deg. Projections are 4 s long.

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Fig. 12

Dive paths with initial pitch values from −40 deg to 40 deg in 2 deg increments. Initial velocity is held constant at 10 m/s. Dihedral is set to 25 deg.

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Fig. 13

Dive paths with θP0 varied from −40 deg to +40 deg for θD = 25 deg, 40 deg, 55 deg, and 70 deg. VX0 = 10 m/s. Projections are 4 s long.

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Fig. 14

Test 1: Comparing the flat plate model to experimental data. θD = 35 deg.

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Fig. 15

Test 2: Comparing the flat plate model to experimental data. θD = 35 deg.

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Fig. 16

Test 3: Comparing the flat plate model to experimental data. θD = 35 deg.

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Fig. 17

Test 4: Comparing the flat plate model to experimental data. θD = 35 deg.

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Fig. 18

Test 1: Comparing the flat plate model to experimental data. θD = 50 deg.

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Fig. 19

Test 2: Comparing the flat plate model to experimental data. θD = 50 deg.

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Fig. 20

Test 3: Comparing the flat plate model to experimental data. θD = 50 deg.

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Fig. 21

Test 1: Autonomous diving flight test results. Dihedral angle chosen: 55 deg. Pullout successful and the platform was able to climb back to a safe altitude.

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Fig. 22

Test 2: Autonomous diving flight test results. Dihedral angle chosen: 55 deg. Climb rate after the pullout was low and the platform was landed manually.

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Fig. 23

Test 3: Autonomous diving flight test results. Dihedral angle chosen: 55 deg. Pullout successful and the platform was able to climb back to a safe altitude.

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Fig. 24

Test 4: Autonomous diving flight test results. Dihedral angle chosen: 55 deg. The climb rate after the pullout was low, and the platform was landed manually.

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