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Research Papers

Design and Evaluation of a Balance Assistance Control Moment Gyroscope

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Lemus

Department of Biomechanical Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628CD, The Netherlands
e-mail: d.s.lemusperez@tudelft.nl

Jan van Frankenhuyzen

Bio-Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Biomechanical Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628CD, The Netherlands
e-mail: j.vanfrankenhuyzen@tudelft.nl

Heike Vallery

Department of Biomechanical Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628CD, The Netherlands
e-mail: h.vallery@tudelft.nl

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 23, 2017; final manuscript received June 3, 2017; published online August 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Veronica J. Santos.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 9(5), 051007 (Aug 04, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: JMR-17-1020; doi: 10.1115/1.4037255 History: Received January 23, 2017; Revised June 03, 2017

We recently proposed the theoretical idea of a wearable balancing aid, consisting of a set of control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) contained into a backpacklike orthopedic corset. Even though similar solutions have been reported in the literature, important considerations in the synthesis and design of the actuators remained to be addressed. These include design requirements such as aerodynamic behavior of the spinning flywheel, induced dynamics by the wearer's motion, and stresses in the inner components due to the generated gyroscopic moment. In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of a single CMG, addressing in detail the aforementioned requirements. In addition, given the application of the device in human balance, the design follows the European directives for medical electrical equipment. The developed system was tested in a dedicated balance test bench showing good agreement with the expected flywheel speed, and calculated power requirements in the actuators and output gyroscopic moment. The device was capable of producing a peak gyroscopic moment of approximately 70 N·m with a total CMG mass of about 10 kg.

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Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Flywheels , Design , Actuators
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Single CMG prototype attached to a wearable corset

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Fig. 2

Schematic of a worn single-gimbal control moment gyroscope (SG-CMG). The gimbal-fixed frame {g⃗̂s,g⃗̂t,g⃗̂g} is oriented such that g⃗̂s is aligned with the flywheel spin axis and g⃗̂g is aligned with the body-fixed longitudinal axis b⃗̂w, to constrain the direction of the exerted gyroscopic moment −τCMGg⃗̂t to the transverse plane. Flywheel and gimbal angular speeds are denoted by Ω and γ˙, respectively. Adapted from Ref. [22] with permission of the author.

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Fig. 3

Flywheel cross section

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Fig. 4

FEM equivalent (von Mises) stress for the designed flywheel geometry

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Fig. 5

A section view of the flywheel prototype. The flywheel block includes the rotational parts such as the flywheel itself coupling to the motor and the housing for the magnet of the absolute-encoder. The motor block includes the brushless motor and its housing. The gimbal structure includes the Al-7075-T6 case and reinforcement plates. Self-aligning bearings are placed in each end of the gimbal axis (top and bottom).

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Fig. 6

Experimental setup description: (a) hardware description and (b) lateral and top views of the experimental setup and CMG unit attached to the IP, respectively. Note that frames {b⃗̂u,b⃗̂v,b⃗̂w} and {g⃗̂s,g⃗̂t,g⃗̂g} fulfill the condition b⃗̂w∥g⃗̂g and b⃗̂v∥y. Due to the gyroscopic effect, positive angular rates about the CMG's g⃗̂g-axis (within the operation range) will produce moments on the IP with a positive component τIP about the b⃗̂v-axis, while the flywheel spins in the positive g⃗̂s direction, and (c) experimental setup.

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Fig. 7

Communication flow chart of the experimental setup

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Fig. 8

Control scheme used in the experimental setup to emulate the springlike behavior

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Fig. 9

Reference (solid line) versus tracked stiffness (shaded regions). The estimated transverse moment was computed as τ̂IP=τ̂CMG cos(γ).

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