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Research Papers

A General Friction Model of Discrete Interactions for Tendon Actuated Dexterous Manipulators

[+] Author and Article Information
Anzhu Gao

State Key Laboratory of Robotics,
Shenyang Institute of Automation,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
No. 19, Feiyun Road, Hunnan District,
Shenyang 110179, Liaoning, China
e-mail: gaoanzhu@hotmail.com

Yun Zou

State Key Laboratory of Robotics
Shenyang Institute of Automation,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
No. 19, Feiyun Road, Hunnan District,
Shenyang 110179, Liaoning, China
e-mail: zouyun@sia.cn

Zhidong Wang

Department of Advanced Robotics,
Chiba Institute of Technology,
2-17-1 Tsudanuma,
Narashino 275-0016, Chiba, Japan
e-mail: zhidong.wang@it-chiba.ac.jp

Hao Liu

State Key Laboratory of Robotics,
Shenyang Institute of Automation,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
No. 19, Feiyun Road, Hunnan District,
Shenyang 110179, Liaoning, China
e-mail: liuhao@sia.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 5, 2016; final manuscript received April 26, 2017; published online June 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Veronica J. Santos.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 9(4), 041019 (Jun 14, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JMR-16-1342; doi: 10.1115/1.4036719 History: Received November 05, 2016; Revised April 26, 2017

Continuum robots present the great dexterity and compliance as dexterous manipulators to accomplish complex positioning tasks in confined anatomy during minimally invasive surgery. Tendon actuation is one of the most popular approaches, which is to insert the tendon to eccentrically go through and interact with the flexible backbone to accomplish compliant bends. However, hysteresis of tip trajectory of tendon actuated dexterous manipulators (TA–DMs) has been observed during the loading and unloading procedure, which is mainly caused by the hindered friction at discrete interactions between the actuation tendon and conduits. This paper aims to propose a general friction model to describe the interactions and friction profile at the multiple discrete contact points for tendon actuated dexterous manipulators under the history-dependent tendon tension. The friction model was integrated into the beam theory to describe the hysteresis and loading history-dependent behavior by solving the profiles of tendon force, normal force, and friction force, as well as the deflection of the dexterous manipulator. Experiments were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed friction model. Results indicate that the friction model can successfully describe the discrete interaction and predict the deflection of dexterous manipulator subject to the different tendon loading histories. Furthermore, the effects of discrete friction to the tendon force propagation and the loading history-dependent behavior are discussed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The diagram of a DITA–DM and free body diagram of the tendon at the tip and body of a DITA–DM

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Fig. 2

The friction at the single point and multiple points: (a) shows the equivalent friction coefficient at the single point and (b)–(d) shows the potential profiles of friction direction at multiple points

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Fig. 3

Procedure of numerical solution

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup

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Fig. 5

Comparison of simulation data and experimental data with the force from 1 N to 4 N in 1 N increments/decrements: (a)–(d) show the bending phase and (e)–(h) show the unbending phase

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Fig. 6

Simulation data with the force from 1 N to 4 N in 1 N increments/decrements with the friction coefficient as 0

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Fig. 7

Tip trajectories and deflection angles with the maximal force as 4 N and two different friction coefficients

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Fig. 8

Comparison of simulation data and experimental data with the history-dependent tendon tensions: the red, blue, orange, and green lines indicate four cases—TP I∼IV (see color figure online)

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Fig. 9

Tip trajectories and deflection angles with the history-dependent tendon tensions

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