0
Research Papers

An Underactuated Robotic Arm Based on Differential Gears for Capturing Moving Targets: Analysis and Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Qingchuan Wang

State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China

Qiquan Quan

Associate Professor
State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: quanqiquan@hit.edu.cn

Zongquan Deng

Professor
State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China

Xuyan Hou

Associate Professor
State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 14, 2015; final manuscript received February 13, 2016; published online March 16, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Aaron M. Dollar.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 8(4), 041012 (Mar 16, 2016) (13 pages) Paper No: JMR-15-1114; doi: 10.1115/1.4032811 History: Received May 14, 2015; Revised February 13, 2016

This paper presents the design of an underactuated robotic arm for capturing moving targets with an impact-absorbing capability. The arm consists of three joints (a base joint (BJ), a medial joint (MJ), and a distal joint (DJ)) that are driven by two actuators. A one-input dual-output planetary gear (PG) system, in which neither the ring gear nor the planetary carrier is fixed, is employed to distribute the driving torque between the MJ and DJ. As is well known, an underactuated arm may exhibit unstable grasping performance such that the arm loses contact with the target in certain grasping postures. Therefore, a method is presented for analyzing the equilibrium contact force and the relative movement trend between the target and the arm to determine the work space in which stable grasping is possible. The structural configuration parameters, such as the length ratios among the three beams and the reduction ratio of the PG system, were optimized to maximize the grasp stability work space. Subsequently, a prototype was designed and fabricated based on these optimized parameters. Experiments indicate that this arm design can effectively reduce the peak torque on the joints when grasping a moving target.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Nishida, S. I. , and Kawamoto, S. , 2011, “ Strategy for Capturing of a Tumbling Space Debris,” Acta Astronaut., 68(1–2), pp. 113–120. [CrossRef]
Johnson, L. , Khazanov, G. , and Gilchrist, B. , 2012, “ Space Tethers,” J. Space Technol. Sci., 26(1), pp. 2–13.
Murphy, R. J. , Kutzer, M. D. M. , Segreti, S. M. , Lucas, B. C. , and Armand, M. , 2013, “ Design and Kinematic Characterization of a Surgical Manipulator With a Focus on Treating Osteolysis,” Robotica, 32(6), pp. 835–850. [CrossRef]
Wolf, S. , Eiberger, O. , and Hirzinger, G. , 2011, “ The DLR FSJ: Energy Based Design of a Variable Stiffness Joint,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Shanghai, China, May 9–13, pp. 5082–5089.
Jacobsen, S. C. , Wood, J. E. , Knutti, D. F. , and Biggers, K. B. , 1984, “ The UTAH/M.I.T. Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 4(3), pp. 21–50. [CrossRef]
Hirose, S. , and Umetani, Y. , 1978, “ The Development of Soft Gripper for the Versatile Robot Hand,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 13(3), pp. 351–358. [CrossRef]
Gazeau, J. P. , Zeghloul, S. , and Ramirez, G. , 2005, “ Manipulation With a Polyarticulated Mechanical Hand: A New Efficient Real-Time Method for Computing Fingertip Forces for a Global Manipulation Strategy,” Robotica, 23(4), pp. 479–490. [CrossRef]
Grebenstein, M. , Chalon, M. , Friedl, W. , and Siegwart, R. , 2012, “ The Hand of the DLR Hand Arm System: Designed for Interaction,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 13(31), pp. 1531–1555. [CrossRef]
Gafford, J. , Ding, Y. , Harris, A. , McKenna, T. , Polygerinos, P. , Holland, D. , Moser, A. , and Walsh, C. J. , 2015, “ Shape Deposition Manufacturing of a Soft, Atraumatic, and Deployable Surgical Grasper,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 7(2), p. 021006.
Ozawa, R. , Hashirii, K. , and Yoshimura, Y. , 2014, “ Design and Control of a Three-Fingered Tendon-Driven Robotic Hand With Active and Passive Tendons,” Auton. Rob., 36, pp. 67–78. [CrossRef]
Takaki, T. , and Omata, T. , 2011, “ High-Performance Anthropomorphic Robot Hand With Grasping-Force-Magnification Mechanism,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 16(3), pp. 583–591. [CrossRef]
Dollar, A. M. , and Howe, R. D. , 2010, “ The Highly Adaptive SDM Hand: Design and Performance Evaluation,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 29(5), pp. 585–597. [CrossRef]
Dollar, A. M. , and Howe, R. D. , 2011, “ Joint Coupling Design of Underactuated Hands for Unstructured Environments,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 30(9), pp. 1157–1169. [CrossRef]
Odhner, L. U. , Jentoft, L. P. , Claffee, M. R. , Corson, N. , Tenzer, Y. , Ma, R. R. , Buehler, M. , Kohout, R. , Howe, R. D. , and Dollar, A. M. , 2013, “ A Compliant, Underactuated Hand for Robust Manipulation,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 33(5), pp. 736–752. [CrossRef]
Lalibertè, T. , Birglen, L. , and Gosselin, C. , 2002, “ Underactuation in Robotic Grasping Hands,” Mach. Intell. Rob. Control, 4(3), pp. 77–87.
Huang, H. , Jiang, L. , Pang, Y. , Tang, Q. , Yang, D. , and Liu, H. , 2010, “ Observer-Based Dynamic Control of an Underactuated Hand,” Adv. Rob., 24(1–2), pp. 123–137.
Zhang, C. , Zhang, W. , Sun, Z. , and Chen, Q. , 2012, “ HAG-SR Hand: Highly-Anthropomorphic-Grasping Under-Actuated Hand With Naturally Coupled States,” Soc. Rob., 7621, pp. 475–484.
Koganezawa, K. , and Ishizuka, Y. , 2008, “ Novel Mechanism of Artificial Finger Using Double Planetary Gear System,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2008), Nice, France, Sept. 22–26, pp. 3184–3191.
Nishimura, H. , Kakogawa, A. , and Ma, S. , 2012, “ Development of an Underactuated Robot Gripper Capable of Retracting Motion,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Guangzhou, China, Dec. 11–14, pp. 2161–2166.
Quan, Q. , Ma, S. , and Deng, Z. , 2012, “ Impact Analysis of a Dual-Crawler-Driven Robot,” Adv. Rob., 23(12–13), pp. 1779–1797.
Higashimori, M. , Kaneko, M. , Namiki, A. , and Ishikawa, M. , 2005, “ Design of the 100 g Capturing Robot Based on Dynamic Preshaping,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 24(9), pp. 743–753. [CrossRef]
Grebenstein, M. , and van der Smagt, P. , 2008, “ Antagonism for a Highly Anthropomorphic Hand-Arm System,” Adv. Rob., 22(9), pp. 39–55. [CrossRef]
Wang, Q. , Liu, G. , Quan, Q. , and Deng, Z. , 2015, “ A Novel Underactuated Robotic Finger for Withstanding Impacts of Non-Cooperative Object Capture,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Seattle, WA, May 26–30, pp. 4341–4346.
Carrozza, M. C. , Massa, B. , and Micera, S. , 2002, “ The Development of a Novel Prosthetic Hand-Ongoing Research and Preliminary Results,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 7(2), pp. 108–114. [CrossRef]
Ambrose, R. O. , Aldridge, H. , and Askew, R. S. , 2000, “ Robonaut: NASA's Space Humanoid,” Intell. Syst., 14(4), pp. 57–63. [CrossRef]
Gaiser, I. , Schulz, S. , and Kargov, A. , 2008, “ A New Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand,” 8th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2008), Daejeon, South Korea, Dec. 1–3, pp. 418–422.
Yamano, I. , and Maeno, T. , 2005, “ Five-Fingered Robot Hand Using Ultrasonic Motors and Elastic Elements,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2005), Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp. 2673–2678.
Minor, M. , and Mukherjee, R. , 1999, “ A Mechanism for Dexterous End-Effector Placement During Minimally Invasive Surgery,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 121(4), pp. 472–479. [CrossRef]
Kragten, G. A. , and Herder, J. L. , 2010, “ The Ability of Underactuated Hands to Grasp and Hold Objects,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 45(3), pp. 408–425. [CrossRef]
Pollard, N. S. , and Gilbert, R. C. , 2002, “ Tendon Arrangement and Muscle Force Requirements for Human-Like Force Capabilities in a Robotic Finger,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA '02), Washington, DC, May 11–15, pp. 3755–3762.
Joshua, M. I. , and Francisco, J. V. , 2013, “ Computational Optimization and Experimental Evaluation of Grasp Quality for Tendon-Driven Hands Subject to Design Constraints,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Inouye, J. M. , Kutch, J. J. , and Valero-Cuevas, F. J. , 2014, Optimizing the Topology of Tendon-Driven Fingers: Rationale, Predictions and Implementation, Vol. 95, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 247–266.
Birglen, L. , Lalibertè, T. , and Gosselin, C. , 2008, Underactuated Robotic Hands, Springer Science and Business Media, Berlin.
Quan, Q. , Wang, Q. , Deng, Z. , Jiang, S. , Hou, X. , and Tang, D. , 2013, “ A Planetary Gear Based Underactuated Self-Adaptive Robotic Finger,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Shenzhen, China, Dec. 12–14, pp. 1586–1591.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed arm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Grasping movements for a moving object and a stationary object

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Transmission scheme for the proposed robotic arm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Static equilibrium analysis of the robotic arm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Static equilibrium analyses with different centers of balance: (a) DJ, (b) MJ and DJ, and (c) BJ, MJ, and DJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental results of normal contact force on three joint beams: (a) DJ beam, (b) MJ beam, and (c) BJ beam

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Normal contact force on the MJ beam in the work space (h3/l3 = 0.3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Movement of the underactuated part: (a) case 1: Ft2 > 0, θ3 > 0, (b) case 2: Ft2 > 0, θ3 < 0, (c) case 3: Ft2 < 0, θ3 > 0, and (d) case 4: Ft2 < 0, θ3 < 0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) Stable and (b) unstable grasping movements for the same robotic arm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

One-beam contact configuration of the underactuated part [33]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Distribution of the stable and unstable grasping positions for a test parameter set

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Movement of the proposed arm when capturing a moving target

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Distribution of the stable and unstable grasping positions after optimization

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Force distribution diagrams

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Mechanical model of the proposed arm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The prototype of the proposed arm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Grip experiments using the prototype

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Two working modes used to compare the effects of impact

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Movement of the arm in a collision: (a) mode I and (b) mode II

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Impact experiment results: (a) speed of the motor in the MJ and (b) impact torque on the BJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Capturing experiment for a moving target

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Various capturing experiments

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In