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Research Papers

An Actively Controlled Shape-Morphing Compliant Microarchitectured Material

[+] Author and Article Information
Lucas A. Shaw

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California, Los Angeles,
Los Angeles, CA 90095
e-mail: lukeshaw@ucla.edu

Jonathan B. Hopkins

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California, Los Angeles,
Los Angeles, CA 90095
e-mail: hopkins@seas.ucla.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 25, 2015; final manuscript received July 23, 2015; published online November 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Robert J. Wood.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 8(2), 021019 (Nov 24, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JMR-15-1098; doi: 10.1115/1.4031168 History: Received April 25, 2015; Revised July 23, 2015; Accepted July 24, 2015

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new kind of microarchitectured material that utilizes active control to alter its bulk shape through the deformation of its compliant elements. This new kind of microarchitectured material achieves its reconfigurable shape capabilities through a new control strategy that utilizes linearity and closed-form analytical tools to rapidly calculate the optimal internal actuation effort necessary to achieve a desired bulk surface profile. The kind of microarchitectured materials introduced in this paper is best suited for high-precision applications that would benefit from materials that can be programed to rapidly alter their surface or shape by small repeatable amounts in a controlled manner. Examples include distortion-correcting surfaces on which precision optics are mounted, airplane wings that deform to increase maneuverability and fuel efficiency, and surfaces that rapidly reconfigure to alter their texture. In this paper, the principles are provided for optimally designing 2D or 3D versions of the new kind of microarchitectured material such that they exhibit desired material property directionality. The mathematical theory is provided for modeling and calculating the actuation effort necessary to drive these materials such that their lattice shape comes closest to achieving a desired profile. Case studies are provided to demonstrate the utility of this theory and finite-element analysis (FEA) is used to verify the results.

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Topics: Shapes , Actuators , Design , Stress
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Figures

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Fig. 1

A 2D shape-morphing microarchitectured material example that consists of repeating unit cells (a), and one of the four arms within one of these unit cells (b) and (c)

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Fig. 2

Isotropic lattices made of hexagonal (a) and triangular (b) unit cells

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Fig. 3

A simple unit cell design used for modeling (a), a 3 × 15 lattice of cells (b), and the same lattice actuated to a desired deformed shape (c)

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Fig. 4

A successful (a) and unsuccessful (b) attempt at achieving a desired lattice shape using the swarm control approach

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Fig. 5

Shape-morphing lattice case studies that utilize independent-actuator control to achieve an E = 0 (a)–(d) and a more realistic V-shape was achieved (e)

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Fig. 6

A 20 × 20 shape-morphing lattice

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Fig. 7

Unit cell's geometric parameters (a); a loading pattern applied to a 2 × 2 lattice that follows the swarm approach discussed in Sec. 3 (b); the resulting lattice deformation according to FEA (c); and the resulting lattice deformation according to the analytical tools of Sec. 4 (d)

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