0
Research Papers

Application of Rigid-Body-Linkage Static Balancing Techniques to Reduce Actuation Effort in Compliant Mechanisms

[+] Author and Article Information
Sangamesh R. Deepak

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: sangu@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in

Amrith N. Hansoge

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: amrithnh@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in

G. K. Ananthasuresh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore 560012, India
e-mail: suresh@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in

Manuscript received January 4, 2015; final manuscript received July 21, 2015; published online November 24, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Larry L. Howell.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 8(2), 021005 (Nov 24, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: JMR-15-1002; doi: 10.1115/1.4031192 History: Received January 04, 2015; Revised July 21, 2015; Accepted July 24, 2015

There are analytical methods in the literature where a zero-free-length spring-loaded linkage is perfectly statically balanced by addition of more zero-free-length springs. This paper provides a general framework to extend these methods to flexure-based compliant mechanisms through (i) the well know small-length flexure model and (ii) approximation between torsional springs and zero-free-length springs. We use first-order truncated Taylor's series for the approximation between the torsional springs and zero-free-length springs so that the entire framework remains analytical, albeit approximate. Three examples are presented and the effectiveness of the framework is studied by means of finite-element analysis and a prototype. As much as 70% reduction in actuation effort is demonstrated. We also present another application of static balancing of a rigid-body linkage by treating a compliant mechanism as the spring load to a rigid-body linkage.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Howell, L. L. , 2001, Compliant Mechanisms, Wiley, New York.
Herder, J. L. , and van den Berg, F. P. A. , 2000, “ Statically Balanced Compliant Mechanisms (SBCMs), an Example and Prospects,” ASME Paper No. DETC2000/MECH-14144.
Stapel, A. , and Herder, J. L. , 2004, “ Feasibility Study of a Fully Compliant Statically Balanced Laparoscopic Grasper,” ASME Paper No. DETC2004-57242.
de Lange, D. J. B. A. , Langelaar, M. , and Herder, J. L. , 2008, “ Towards the Design of a Statically Balanced Compliant Laparoscopic Grasper Using Topology Optimization,” ASME Paper No. DETC2008-49794.
Tolou, N. , and Herder, J. L. , 2009, “ Concept and Modeling of a Statically Balanced Compliant Laparoscopic Grasper,” ASME Paper No. DETC2009-86694.
Rosenberg, E. J. , Radaelli, G. , and Herder, J. L. , 2010, “ An Energy Approach to a 2DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism With Self-Guiding Statically-Balanced Straight-Line Behavior,” ASME Paper No. DETC2010-28447.
Hoetmer, K. , Woo, G. , Kim, C. , and Herder, J. , 2010, “ Negative Stiffness Building Blocks for Statically Balanced Compliant Mechanisms: Design and Testing,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 2(4), p. 041007. [CrossRef]
Morsch, F. M. , and Herder, J. L. , 2010, “ Design of a Generic Zero Stiffness Compliant Joint,” ASME Paper No. DETC2010-28351.
Gallego, J. A. , and Herder, J. L. , 2010, “ Criteria for the Static Balancing of Compliant Mechanisms,” ASME Paper No. DETC2010-28469.
Tolou, N. , and Herder, J. L. , 2010, “ Statically Balanced Compliant Micro Mechanisms (SM-MEMS): Concepts and Simulation,” ASME Paper No. DETC2010-28406.
Dunning, A. G. , Tolou, N. , and Herder, J. L. , 2011, “ Review Article: Inventory of Platforms Towards the Design of a Statically Balanced Six Degrees of Freedom Compliant Precision Stage,” Mech. Sci., 2(2), pp. 157–168. [CrossRef]
Chen, G. , and Zhang, S. , 2011, “ Fully-Compliant Statically-Balanced Mechanisms Without Prestressing Assembly: Concepts and Case Studies,” Mech. Sci., 2(2), pp. 169–174. [CrossRef]
Herder, J. L. , 1998, “ Design of Spring Force Compensation Systems,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 33(1), pp. 151–161. [CrossRef]
Herder, J. L. , 2001, “ Energy-Free Systems: Theory, Conception and Design of Statically Balanced Spring Mechanisms,” Ph.D. dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
Deepak, S. R. , and Ananthasuresh, G. , 2012, “ Static Balancing of a Four-Bar Linkage and Its Cognates,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 48, pp. 62–80. [CrossRef]
Deepak, S. , and Ananthasuresh, G. K. , 2009, “ Static Balancing of Spring-Loaded Planar Revolute-Joint Linkages Without Auxiliary Links,” 14th National Conference on Machines and Mechanisms (NaCoMM09), NIT, Durgapur, India, Dec. 17–18, Paper No. NaCoMM-2009-ASMSD20, pp. 37–44.
Deepak, S. R. , and Ananthasuresh, G. K. , 2012, “ Perfect Static Balance of Linkages by Addition of Springs but not Auxiliary Bodies,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 4(2), p. 021014. [CrossRef]
Radaelli, G. , Gallego, J. A. , and Herder, J. L. , 2011, “ An Energy Approach to Static Balancing of Systems With Torsion Stiffness,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(9), p. 091006. [CrossRef]
Merriam, E. G. , and Howell, L. L. , 2015, “ Non-Dimensional Approach for Static Balancing of Rotational Flexures,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 84, pp. 90–98. [CrossRef]
Howell, L. L. , and Midha, A. , 1994, “ A Method for the Design of Compliant Mechanisms With Small-Length Flexural Pivots,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 116(1), pp. 280–290. [CrossRef]
Mabie, H. , and Reinholtz, C. , 1987, Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery, Wiley, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Practically realizing a zero-free-length spring by giving appropriate pretension: (a) zero free length, (b) shifting of the plot along l-axis by l0, and (c) shifting of the plot along f-axis due to prestressing fp

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A double pin-jointed linkage under the zero-free-length spring loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A pin-jointed lever under the zero-free-length spring loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Rigid-body linkage approximation of a flexure-based compliant mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

A flexure-based lever

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Various cases in the analytical framework that is applied to the flexure beam

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

fx versus ux before (1a) and after (1b) application of the analytical framework

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

A compliant four-bar linkage—cases (1a) and (2a)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Position and velocity analysis of the four-bar linkage in the reference (undeformed) configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Approximating torsional springs by zero-free-length springs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Cases (3b) and (1b) in the analytical framework applied on the compliant four-bar linkage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Decrease in the effort function from case (1a) to case (1b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

A prototype to demonstrate reduction in effort

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Force deflection relationship of the prototype

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

A two degree-of-freedom compliant pointer and its approximation as a rigid-body linkage loaded by torsional springs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Cases (2a) and (3a) in the analytical framework applied on two degree-of-freedom probe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Cases (3b) and (1b) of the analytical framework applied on the two degree-of-freedom compliant probe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

fx versus u plot in two different views

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

fy versus u plot in two different views

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Graphical representation of the gripper

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Planar representation of the model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Compliant metallic gripper without static balancing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Finite-element analysis of the model using comsol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Compliant metallic gripper with static balancing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Comparison of force–displacement relation of point P without and with static balancing

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In