Research Papers

Design and Analysis of a Cable-Driven Articulated Rehabilitation System for Gait Training

[+] Author and Article Information
Aliakbar Alamdari

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
SUNY at Buffalo,
Buffalo, NY 14260
e-mail: aalamdar@buffalo.edu

Venkat Krovi

Fellow ASME
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
SUNY at Buffalo,
Buffalo, NY 14260
e-mail: vkrovi@buffalo.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 14, 2015; final manuscript received December 11, 2015; published online May 4, 2016. Assoc. Editor: James Schmiedeler.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 8(5), 051018 (May 04, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: JMR-15-1266; doi: 10.1115/1.4032274 History: Received September 14, 2015; Revised December 11, 2015

Assisted motor therapies play a critical role in enhancing functional musculoskeletal recovery and neurological rehabilitation. Our long-term goal is to assist and automate the performance of repetitive motor-therapy of the human lower limbs. Hence, in this paper, we examine the viability of a light-weight and reconfigurable hybrid (articulated-multibody and cable) robotic system for assisting lower-extremity rehabilitation and analyze its performance. A hybrid cable-actuated articulated-multibody system is formed when multiple cables are attached from a ground-frame to various locations on an articulated-linkage-based orthosis. Our efforts initially focus on developing an analysis and simulation framework for the kinematics and dynamics of the cable-driven lower limb orthosis. A Monte Carlo approach is employed to select configuration parameters including cuff sizes, cuff locations, and the position of fixed winches. The desired motions for the rehabilitative exercises are prescribed based upon motion patterns from a normative subject cohort. We examine the viability of using two controllers—a joint-space feedback-linearized PD controller and a task-space force-control strategy—to realize trajectory- and path-tracking of the desired motions within a simulation environment. In particular, we examine performance in terms of (i) coordinated control of the redundant system; (ii) reducing internal stresses within the lower-extremity joints; and (iii) continued satisfaction of the unilateral cable-tension constraints throughout the workspace.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Alamdari, A. , Jun, S. , Ramsey, D. , and Krovi, V. , 2016, “ A Review of Home-Based Robotic Rehabilitation,” Encyclopedia of Medical Robotics, World Scientific, Singapore.
Hornby, T. G. , Zemon, D. H. , and Campbell, D. , 2005, “ Robotic-Assisted, Body-Weight–Supported Treadmill Training in Individuals Following Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury,” Phys. Ther., 85(1), pp. 52–66. [PubMed]
Joffe, D. , Watkins, M. , Steiner, L. , and Pfeifer, B. , 2002, “ Treadmill Ambulation With Partial Body Weight Support for the Treatment of Low Back and Leg Pain,” J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther., 32(5), pp. 202–213. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Field-Fote, E. C. , 2001, “ Combined Use of Body Weight Support, Functional Electric Stimulation, and Treadmill Training to Improve Walking Ability in Individuals With Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury,” Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 82(6), pp. 818–824. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Volpe, B. T. , Ferraro, M. , Krebs, H. I. , and Hogan, N. , 2002, “ Robotics in the Rehabilitation Treatment of Patients With Stroke,” Curr. Atheroscler. Rep., 4(4), pp. 270–276. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zoss, A. B. , Kazerooni, H. , and Chu, A. , 2006, “ Biomechanical Design of the Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (Bleex),” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 11(2), pp. 128–138. [CrossRef]
Walsh, C. J. , Endo, K. , and Herr, H. , 2007, “ A Quasi-Passive Leg Exoskeleton for Load-Carrying Augmentation,” Int. J. Humanoid Rob., 4(3), pp. 487–506. [CrossRef]
Kawamoto, H. , and Sankai, Y. , 2002, “ Power Assist System Hal-3 for Gait Disorder Person,” Computers Helping People With Special Needs, Springer, Berlin, pp. 19–29.
Banala, S. K. , Agrawal, S. K. , Fattah, A. , Krishnamoorthy, V. , Hsu, W.-L. , Scholz, J. , and Rudolph, K. , 2006, “ Gravity-Balancing Leg Orthosis and Its Performance Evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 22(6), pp. 1228–1239. [CrossRef]
Ferris, D. P. , Czerniecki, J. M. , and Hannaford, B. , 2005, “ An Ankle-Foot Orthosis Powered by Artificial Pneumatic Muscles,” J. Appl. Biomech., 21(2), pp. 189–197. [PubMed]
Cherry, M. S. , Choi, D. J. , Deng, K. J. , Kota, S. , and Ferris, D. P. , 2006, “ Design and Fabrication of an Elastic Knee Orthosis: Preliminary Results,” ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Philadelphia, PA, ASME Paper No. DETC2006-99622, pp. 565–573.
Banala, S. K. , Kim, S. H. , Agrawal, S. K. , and Scholz, J. P. , 2009, “ Robot Assisted Gait Training With Active Leg Exoskeleton (Alex),” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., 17(1), pp. 2–8. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Veneman, J. , Ekkelenkamp, R. , Kruidhof, R. , Van der Helm, F. , and Van der Kooij, H. , 2005, “ Design of a Series Elastic- and Bowden Cable-Based Actuation System for Use as Torque-Actuator in Exoskeleton-Type Training,” 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2005), Chicago, IL, June 28–July 1, pp. 496–499.
Jezernik, S. , Colombo, G. , Keller, T. , Frueh, H. , and Morari, M. , 2003, “ Robotic Orthosis Lokomat: A Rehabilitation and Research Tool,” Neuromodulation, 6(2), pp. 108–115. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schmidt, H. , 2004, “ Hapticwalker—A Novel Haptic Device for Walking Simulation,” EuroHaptics Conference, Munich, Germany, June 5–7, pp. 166–180.
Wu, M. , Hornby, T. G. , Landry, J. M. , Roth, H. , and Schmit, B. D. , 2011, “ A Cable-Driven Locomotor Training System for Restoration of Gait in Human SCI,” Gait Posture, 33(2), pp. 256–260. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jin, X. , Cui, X. , and Agrawal, S. K. , 2015, “ Design of a Cable-Driven Active Leg Exoskeleton (c-Alex) and Gait Training Experiments With Human Subjects,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Seattle, WA, May 26–30, pp. 5578–5583.
Rezazadeh, S. , and Behzadipour, S. , 2011, “ Workspace Analysis of Multibody Cable-Driven Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 3(2), p. 021005. [CrossRef]
Mustafa, S. K. , and Agrawal, S. K. , 2012, “ On the Force-Closure Analysis of n-DOF Cable-Driven Open Chains Based on Reciprocal Screw Theory,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 28(1), pp. 22–31. [CrossRef]
Bryson, J. T. , and Agrawal, S. K. , 2014, “ Analysis of Optimal Cable Configurations in the Design of a 3-DOF Cable-Driven Robot Leg,” ASME Paper No. DETC2014-34656.
Yang, G. , Lin, W. , Pham, C. , and Yeo, S. H. , 2005, “ Kinematic Design of a 7-DOF Cable-Driven Humanoid Arm: A Solution-in-Nature Approach,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Monterey, CA, July 24–28, pp. 444–449.
Alamdari, A. , and Krovi, V. , 2015, “ Parallel Articulated Cable Exercise Robot (PACER): Novel Home-Based Cable Driven Parallel Platform Robot for Upper Limb Neurorehabilitation,” ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE 2015), Boston, MA, Aug. 2–5, ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46389.
Alamdari, A. , and Krovi, V. , 2015, “ Modeling and Control of a Novel Home-Based Cable-Driven Parallel Platform Robot: PACER,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Hamburg, Germany, Sept. 28–Oct. 2, pp. 6330–6335.
Bosscher, P. , Riechel, A. T. , and Ebert-Uphoff, I. , 2006, “ Wrench-Feasible Workspace Generation for Cable-Driven Robots,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 22(5), pp. 890–902. [CrossRef]
Taghavi, A. , Behzadipour, S. , Khalilinasab, N. , and Zohoor, H. , 2013, “ Workspace Improvement of Two-Link Cable-Driven Mechanisms With Spring Cable,” Cable-Driven Parallel Robots, Springer, Berlin, pp. 201–213.
Collins, S. H. , and Kuo, A. D. , 2010, “ Recycling Energy to Restore Impaired Ankle Function During Human Walking,” PLoS One, 5(2), p. e9307. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sup, F. , Varol, H. A. , Mitchell, J. , Withrow, T. , and Goldfarb, M. , 2008, “ Design and Control of an Active Electrical Knee and Ankle Prosthesis,” 2nd IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob 2008), Scottsdale, AZ, Oct. 19–22, pp. 523–528.
Frigo, C. , Crenna, P. , and Jensen, L. , 1996, “ Moment-Angle Relationship at Lower Limb Joints During Human Walking at Different Velocities,” J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol., 6(3), pp. 177–190. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shamaei, K. , Sawicki, G. S. , and Dollar, A. M. , 2013, “ Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness and Propulsive Work of the Human Ankle in the Stance Phase of Walking,” PloS One, 8(3), p. e59935. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shamaei, K. , Sawicki, G. S. , and Dollar, A. M. , 2013, “ Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness of the Human Hip in the Stance Phase of Walking,” PLoS One, 8(12), p. e81841. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shamaei, K. , Sawicki, G. S. , and Dollar, A. M. , 2013, “ Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness of the Human Knee in the Stance Phase of Walking,” PloS One, 8(3), p. e59993. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Alamdari, A. , and Krovi, V. , 2015, “ Robotic Physical Exercise and System (ROPES): A Cable-Driven Robotic Rehabilitation System for Lower-Extremity Motor Therapy,” ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers in Engineering Conference (IDETC/CIE 2015), Boston, MA, Aug. 2–5, ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46393.
Gouttefarde, M. , and Gosselin, C. M. , 2006, “ Analysis of the Wrench-Closure Workspace of Planar Parallel Cable-Driven Mechanisms,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 22(3), pp. 434–445. [CrossRef]
Verhoeven, R. , and Hiller, M. , 2002, “ Tension Distribution in Tendon-Based Stewart Platforms,” Advances in Robot Kinematics, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 117–124.
Lim, W. B. , Yang, G. , Yeo, S. H. , and Mustafa, S. K. , 2011, “ A Generic Force-Closure Analysis Algorithm for Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulators,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 46(9), pp. 1265–1275. [CrossRef]
Saber, O. , 2015, “ A Spatial Translational Cable Robot,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 7(3), p. 031006. [CrossRef]
Chandler, R. , Clauser, C. E. , McConville, J. T. , Reynolds, H. , and Young, J. W. , 1975, “ Investigation of Inertial Properties of the Human Body,” U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Division, Washington, DC, Report No. AD-A016485.
Pott, A. , 2014, “ An Improved Force Distribution Algorithm for Over-Constrained Cable-Driven Parallel Robots,” Computational Kinematics, Springer, Berlin, pp. 139–146.
Borgstrom, P. H. , Jordan, B. L. , Sukhatme, G. S. , Batalin, M. , and Kaiser, W. J. , 2009, “ Rapid Computation of Optimally Safe Tension Distributions for Parallel Cable-Driven Robots,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 25(6), pp. 1271–1281. [CrossRef]
Marchal-Crespo, L. , and Reinkensmeyer, D. J. , 2009, “ Review of Control Strategies for Robotic Movement Training After Neurologic Injury,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil., 6(1), p. 20. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Perez, M. A. , Lungholt, B. K. , Nyborg, K. , and Nielsen, J. B. , 2004, “ Motor Skill Training Induces Changes in the Excitability of the Leg Cortical Area in Healthy Humans,” Exp. Brain Res., 159(2), pp. 197–205. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Reinkensmeyer, D. J. , Kahn, L. E. , Averbuch, M. , McKenna-Cole, A. , Schmit, B. D. , and Rymer, W. Z. , 2000, “ Understanding and Treating Arm Movement Impairment After Chronic Brain Injury: Progress With the Arm Guide,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., 37(6), pp. 653–662. [PubMed]
Yano, H. , Kasai, K. , Saitou, H. , and Iwata, H. , 2003, “ Development of a Gait Rehabilitation System Using a Locomotion Interface,” J. Visualization Comput. Anim., 14(5), pp. 243–252. [CrossRef]
Hesse, S. , Schmidt, H. , and Werner, C. , 2006, “ Machines to Support Motor Rehabilitation After Stroke: 10 Years of Experience in Berlin,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., 43(5), p. 671. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ekkelenkamp, R. , Veltink, P. , Stramigioli, S. , and van der Kooij, H. , 2007, “ Evaluation of a Virtual Model Control for the Selective Support of Gait Functions Using an Exoskeleton,” IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2007), Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June 13–15, pp. 693–699.
Yoon, J. , Ryu, J. , and Lim, K.-B. , 2006, “ Reconfigurable Ankle Rehabilitation Robot for Various Exercises,” J. Rob. Syst., 22(S1), pp. S15–S33. [CrossRef]
Lam, T. , Wirz, M. , Lünenburger, L. , and Dietz, V. , 2008, “ Swing Phase Resistance Enhances Flexor Muscle Activity During Treadmill Locomotion in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury,” Neurorehabilitation Neural Repair, 22(5), pp. 438–446. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Boian, R. F. , Deutsch, J. E. , Lee, C. S. , Burdea, G. C. , and Lewis, J. , 2003, “ Haptic Effects for Virtual Reality-Based Post-Stroke Rehabilitation,” 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS 2003), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 22–23, pp. 247–253.
Huang, V . S. , Shadmehr, R. , and Diedrichsen, J. , 2008, “ Active Learning: Learning a Motor Skill Without a Coach,” J. Neurophysiol., 100(2), pp. 879–887. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stansfield, B. , Hillman, S. , Hazlewood, M. , and Robb, J. , 2006, “ Regression Analysis of Gait Parameters With Speed in Normal Children Walking at Self-Selected Speeds,” Gait Posture, 23(3), pp. 288–294. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Agarwal, P. , and Deshpande, A. D. , 2015, “ Impedance and Force-Field Control of the Index Finger Module of a Hand Exoskeleton for Rehabilitation,” IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), Singapore, Aug. 11–14, pp. 85–90.
Aguirre-Ollinger, G. , Colgate, J. E. , Peshkin, M. , and Goswami, A. , 2007, “ Active-Impedance Control of a Lower-Limb Assistive Exoskeleton,” IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2007), Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June 13–15, pp. 188–195.
Malcolm, P. , Derave, W. , Galle, S. , and De Clercq, D. , 2013, “ A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking,” PloS One, 8(2), p. e56137. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

ROPES: A cable-driven robotic rehabilitation system for lower-extremity. Motors 1, 2, 3, and 4 are placed in appropriate positions to generate positive cable tensions to move lower limbs in the sagittal plane along the desired trajectory, and likewise motors 5, 6, and 7 are placed in frontal plane to generate positive cable tensions based upon the prescribed lateral exercises for lower limbs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A cable-driven robotic rehabilitation system, in which Ti, ti are cable tension and cable unit vector, respectively; diy and dix are cuff size and its position in the local frame; Kti is tensional spring for increasing the WFW

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Ankle, knee, and hip moment versus angle curve for representative subject walking at 1.25 m/s. Quasi-stiffness is calculated based on the slope of the best-line fit to the moment-angle curve for ankle plantar-flexion (KAp), ankle dorsiflexion (KAd), knee flexion (KKf), knee extension (KKe), and hip extension (KHe) and flexion (KHf) [2931].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Hip, knee, ankle, and normalized ground reaction forces of healthy subject during walking with different speeds. These values are considered as desired angles and forces, in trajectory tracking problem [50].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The distance of each cuff from the local frame origin as shown in Fig. 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The trend of each cuff radius

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The trend of cable placements on the fixed frame

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Block diagram of trajectory tracking controller for human user lower limbs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Hip, knee, ankle, and cable length variations during a gait cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Cable tension forces in ROPES

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Internal forces/moments at the lower-extremity joints due to cable tensions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

A block diagram for impedance control of human user lower limbs by creating a virtual force to the ankle point to move it along the target path

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The magnitude of foot angle (thin cyan line) on the target path (thick red line), and upper and lower bound around the foot angle (dashed-line blue curve)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The magnitude of force-field (small black arrows) around the ankle path (thick red line), and the stream of forces around the path (blue thin curve lines)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In