0
Research Papers

A Sarrus-Based Passive Mechanism for Rotorcraft Perching

[+] Author and Article Information
Michelle L. Burroughs

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: burroughs87@gmail.com

K. Beauwen Freckleton

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: bfreckleton@gmail.com

Jake J. Abbott

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: jake.abbott@utah.edu

Mark A. Minor

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Utah,
50 S Central Campus Dr, RM 2110,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112
e-mail: mark.minor@utah.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 3, 2014; final manuscript received May 14, 2015; published online August 18, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Satyandra K. Gupta.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 8(1), 011010 (Aug 18, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: JMR-14-1314; doi: 10.1115/1.4030672 History: Received November 03, 2014

This work examines a passive perching mechanism that enables a rotorcraft to grip branchlike perches and resist external wind disturbance using only the weight of the rotorcraft to maintain the grip. We provide an analysis of the mechanism’s kinematics, present the static force equations that describe how the weight of the rotorcraft is converted into grip force onto a cylindrical perch, and describe how grip forces relate to the ability to reject horizontal disturbance forces. The mechanism is optimized for a single perch size and then for a range of perch sizes. We conclude by constructing a prototype mechanism and demonstrate its use with a remote-controlled (RC) helicopter.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Doyle, C. E. , Bird, J. J. , Isom, T. A. , Johnson, C. J. , Kallman, J. C. , Simpson, J. A. , King, R. J. , Abbott, J. J. , and Minor, M. A. , 2011, “Avian-Inspired Passive Perching Mechanism for Robotic Rotorcraft,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2011), San Francisco, CA, Sept. 25–30, pp. 4975–4980.
Doyle, C. E. , Bird, J. J. , Isom, T. A. , Kallman, J. C. , Bareiss, D. F. , Dunlop, D. J. , King, R. J. , Abbott, J. J. , and Minor, M. A. , 2013, “An Avian-Inspired Passive Mechanism for Quadrotor Perching,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 18(2), pp. 506–517. [CrossRef]
Wikipedia, 2013, “Sarrus Linkage,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarrus_linkage
Larson, A. J. , 2011, “Development and Testing of an Active Perching System,” Master’s thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.
Moore, J. , and Tedrake, R. , 2011, “Magnetic Localization for Perching UAVs on Powerlines,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2011), San Francisco, CA, Sept. 25–30, pp. 2700–2707.
Moore, J. , and Tedrake, R. , 2012, “Control Synthesis and Verification for a Perching UAV Using LQR-Trees,” IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC 2012), Maui, HI, Dec. 10–13, pp. 3707–3714.
Hurst, A. , Wickenheiser, A. , and Garcia, E. , 2008, “Localization and Perching Maneuver Tracking for a Morphing UAV,” IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), Monterey, CA, May 5–8, pp. 1238–1245.
Hurst, A. , and Garcia, E. , 2011, “Controller Design for a Morphing, Perching Aircraft,” Proc. SPIE, 7977, p. 79771L.
Gomez, J. C. , and Garcia, E. , 2011, “Morphing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” Smart Mater. Struct., 20(10), p. 103001. [CrossRef]
Robertson, D. K. , and Reich, G. W. , 2014, “Design and Perching Experiments of Bird-Like Remote Controlled Planes,” 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference (SDM), Boston, Apr. 8–11, p. 17.
Desbiens, A. L. , Asbeck, A. T. , and Cutkosky, M. R. , 2011, “Landing, Perching and Taking Off From Vertical Surfaces,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 30(3), pp. 355–370. [CrossRef]
Desbiens, A. L. , Asbeck, A. T. , and Cutkosky, M. R. , 2011, “Scansorial Landing and Perching,” Robotics Research, Springer, Berlin, pp. 169–184.
Glassman, E. , Desbiens, A. L. , Tobenkin, M. , Cutkosky, M. , and Tedrake, R. , 2012, “Region of Attraction Estimation for a Perching Aircraft: A Lyapunov Method Exploiting Barrier Certificates,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), St. Paul, MN, May 14–18, pp. 2235–2242.
Anderson, M. L. , Perry, C. J. , Hua, B. M. , Olsen, D. S. , Parcus, J. R. , Pederson, K. M. , and Jensen, D. D. , 2009, “The Sticky-Pad Plane and Other Innovative Concepts for Perching UAVs,” 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, Jan. 5–8, AIAA Paper No. 2009-40.
Cory, R. , and Tedrake, R. , 2008, “Experiments in Fixed-Wing UAV Perching,” AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Honolulu, HI, Aug. 18–21, AIAA Paper No. 2008-7256.
Nagendran, A. , Crowther, W. , and Richardson, R. , 2012, “Biologically Inspired Legs for UAV Perched Landing,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., 27(2), pp. 4–13. [CrossRef]
Bachmann, R. J. , Boria, F. J. , Vaidyanathan, R. , Ifju, P. G. , and Quinn, R. D. , 2009, “A Biologically Inspired Micro-Vehicle Capable of Aerial and Terrestrial Locomotion,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 44(3), pp. 513–526. [CrossRef]
Mellinger, D. , Shomin, M. , and Kumar, V. , 2010, “Control of Quadrotors for Robust Perching and Landing,” International Powered Lift Conference 2010, Philadelphia, PA, Oct. 5–7, pp. 119–126.
Kovač, M. , Germann, J. , Hürzeler, C. , Siegwart, R. Y. , and Floreano, D. , 2009, “A Perching Mechanism for Micro Aerial Vehicles,” J. Micro-Nano Mechatronics, 5(3–4), pp. 77–91. [CrossRef]
Mellinger, D. , Shomin, M. , Michael, N. , and Kumar, V. , 2012, Cooperative Grasping and Transport Using Multiple Quadrotors (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics), Springer, Berlin, pp. 545–558.
Mellinger, D. , Lindsey, Q. , Shomin, M. , and Kumar, V. , 2011, “Design, Modeling, Estimation and Control for Aerial Grasping and Manipulation,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), San Francisco, CA, Sept. 25–30, pp. 2668–2673.
Pounds, P. E. , Bersak, D. R. , and Dollar, A. M. , 2012, “Stability of Small-Scale UAV Helicopters and Quadrotors With Added Payload Mass Under PID Control,” Auton. Robots, 33(1–2), pp. 129–142. [CrossRef]
Ghadiok, V. , Goldin, J. , and Ren, W. , 2012, “On the Design and Development of Attitude Stabilization, Vision-Based Navigation, and Aerial Gripping for a Low-Cost Quadrotor,” Auton. Robots, 33(1–2), pp. 41–68. [CrossRef]
Thomas, J. , Polin, J. , Sreenath, K. , and Kumar, V. , 2013, “Avian-Inspired Grasping for Quadrotor Micro UAVs,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-13289.
Danko, T. W. , Kellas, A. , and Oh, P. Y. , 2005, “Robotic Rotorcraft and Perch-and-Stare: Sensing Landing Zones and Handling Obscurants,” 12th International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR '05), Seattle, WA, July 18–20, pp. 296–302.
Goldin, J. C. , 2011, “Perching Using a Quadrotor With Onboard Sensing,” Master’s thesis, Utah State University, Logan, UT.
Daler, L. , Klaptocz, A. , Briod, A. , Sitti, M. , and Floreano, D. , 2013, “A Perching Mechanism for Flying Robots Using a Fibre-Based Adhesive,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Karlsruhe, Germany, May 6–10, pp. 4433–4438.
Culler, E. S. , Thomas, G. C. , and Lee, C. L. , 2012, “A Perching Landing Gear for a Quadcopter,” AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conferecne, Honolulu, HI, Apr. 23–26, AIAA Paper No. 2012-1722.
Burroughs, M. L. , 2014, “A Sarrus-Based Passive Mechanism for Rotorcraft Perching,” Master’s thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
Freckleton, K. B. , 2015, “Sarrus-Based Passive Mechanism for Rotorcraft Perching: Structural Design and Mass Optimization,” B.S. Senior Honors thesis, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Our mechanism, shown here attached to the skids on the bottom of an RC helicopter, uses a bilateral configuration of Sarrus-based linkages to passively grip cylindrical perches

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A Sarrus linkage converts the pure translational motion between the top and bottom plates into angular motion of the plates in the connecting linkages. The two connecting linkages must be out-of-plane to keep the top and bottom plates parallel. Public domain image [3].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Kinematic description of the Sarrus-based perching mechanism considered in this paper, with the rotorcraft’s weight W causing the mechanism to grip on a cylindrical perch of a radius r. The mechanism is described by a set of constant geometric parameters: b, L, T, and Ψ. The mechanism is symmetric, and an out-of-plane linkage that is identical to the two side linkages (not shown) enforces that the top and bottom plates remain parallel as in Fig. 2. An additional set of parameters are used to describe the configuration of the mechanism on a given perch: θ, h, and Te. Pin joints are indicated with small circles. Note that a bottom-side link and a toe form a single rigid link joined to the bottom plate with a pin joint.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Right side of symmetrical Sarrus-based perching mechanism, broken into three components: (a) the top plate, (b) the top side linkage, and (c) the bottom half of the mechanism, which includes the bottom side linkage and its rigidly attached toe, attached to the bottom plate at a pin joint. Small circles represent pin joints.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Optimal design for a single perch radius, r. The link length L and grip angle θmin are set arbitrarily.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of varying individual parameters on the normalized force disturbance F˜D, starting from the optimized design of Fig. 5. The parameters varied include: b˜, Ψ(rad), L˜, and θmin (rad). The optimized design is indicated with a circle (the choices of L˜ and θmin are still user-defined and arbitrary). Each parameter is varied individually while holding all other parameters at the initial values (b˜=2,L˜=1,θmin=π/18 rad, and a˜=3.255).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Normalized force disturbance F˜D versus distance to the center of pressure a˜ (with b˜=2, θmin=π/18 rad, and L˜=1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Minimum relative perch size s versus minimum grip angle θmin (deg) with b˜=2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Normalized force disturbance versus relative perch size for four different mechanisms that have each been optimized for a specified range of perch sizes (with L˜=1,θmin=π/18 rad, and a˜=3.255 in all cases). The  “range” s=1 corresponds to the optimal design for a single perch size.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Normalized force disturbance versus normalized link length for four different mechanisms that have each been optimized for a specified range of perch sizes (with θmin=π/18 rad, and a˜=3.255 in all cases). The range s=1 corresponds to the optimal design for a single perch size.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Normalized force disturbance versus minimum grip angle (deg) for four different mechanisms that have each been optimized for a specified range of perch sizes (with L˜=1, and a˜=3.255 in all cases). The range s=1 corresponds to the optimal design for a single perch size.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Model of the prototype, optimized for the range of perch sizes of s = [0.5 1]: (a) the prototype on the smallest perch in range and (b) the prototype on the largest perch in range

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Video images of the descent and ascent of helicopter with attached perching mechanism on 42 mm (top row) and 21 mm (bottom row) diameter PVC perches. The system is manually lowered onto the perch using a string in (a) and (b), the string is allowed to go completely slack in (c) to allow the complete weight of the helicopter to generate a grip and pause there, and then the string is used to lift the helicopter off the perch in (d) and (e). Top row: (a) t = 0 s, (b) t = 1 s, (c) t = 2.2 s, (d) t = 3.4 s, and (e) t = 3.7 s and bottom row: (a) t = 0 s, (b) t = 0.6 s, (c) t = 1.9 s, (d) t = 4.2 s, and (e) t = 4.5 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Perching on various objects: (a) toroid, (b) chair back, (c) edge of pallet, (d) square railing, (e) human fingers, (f) tree branch, (g) edge of garbage can, and (h) edge of rock

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In