0
Research Papers

Hierarchical Kinematic Design of Foldable Hexapedal Locomotion Platforms

[+] Author and Article Information
Siamak G. Faal

Soft Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
100 Institute Road,
Worcester, MA 01609
e-mail: sghorbanifaal@wpi.edu

Fuchen Chen

Soft Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
100 Institute Road,
Worcester, MA 01609
e-mail: fchen@wpi.edu

Weijia Tao

Soft Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
100 Institute Road,
Worcester, MA 01609
e-mail: wtao@wpi.edu

Mahdi Agheli

Soft Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
100 Institute Road,
Worcester, MA 01609
e-mail: mmaghelih@wpi.edu

Shadi Tasdighikalat

Soft Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
100 Institute Road,
Worcester, MA 01609
e-mail: stasdighikalat@wpi.edu

Cagdas D. Onal

Soft Robotics Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
100 Institute Road,
Worcester, MA 01609
e-mail: cdonal@wpi.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 16, 2014; final manuscript received April 15, 2015; published online August 18, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Aaron M. Dollar.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 8(1), 011005 (Aug 18, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: JMR-14-1220; doi: 10.1115/1.4030468 History: Received August 16, 2014

Origami-inspired folding enables integrated design and manufacturing of intricate kinematic mechanisms and structures. Here, we present a hierarchical development process of foldable robotic platforms as combinations of fundamental building blocks to achieve arbitrary levels of complexity and functionality. Rooted in theoretical linkage kinematics, designs for static structures and functional units, respectively, offer rigidity and mobility for robotic systems. The proposed approach is demonstrated on the design, fabrication, and experimental verification of three distinct types of hexapedal locomotion platforms covering a broad range of features and use cases.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Onal, C. D. , Wood, R. J. , and Rus, D. , 2011, “Towards Printable Robotics: Origami-Inspired Planar Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Mechanisms,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Shanghai, May 9–13, pp. 4608–4613.
Onal, C. D. , Wood, R. J. , and Rus, D. , 2012, “An Origami-Inspired Approach to Worm Robots,” IEEE Trans. Mechatronics, 18(2), pp. 430–438. [CrossRef]
Hoover, A. M. , and Fearing, R. S. , 2008, “Fast Scale Prototyping for Folded Millirobots,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2008), Pasadena, CA, May 19–23, pp. 886–892.
Hawkes, E. , An, B. , Benbernou, N. , Tanaka, H. , Kim, S. , Demaine, E. , Rus, D. , and Wood, R. , 2010, “Programmable Matter by Folding,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 107(28), pp. 12441–12445. [CrossRef]
Felton, S. M. , Tolley, M. T. , Shin, B. , Onal, C. D. , Demaine, E. D. , Rus, D. , and Wood, R. , 2013, “Self-Folding With Shape Memory Composites,” Soft Matter, 9(32), pp. 7688–7694. [CrossRef]
Miyashita, S. , Onal, C. D. , and Rus, D. , 2013, “Self-Pop-Up Cylindrical Structure by Global Heating,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Tokyo, Nov. 3–7, pp. 4065–4071.
Felton, S. , Tolley, M. , Demaine, E. , Rus, D. , and Wood, R. , 2014, “A Method for Building Self-Folding Machines,” Science, 345(6197), pp. 644–646. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Silverberg, J. L. , Evans, A. A. , McLeod, L. , Hayward, R. C. , Hull, T. , Santangelo, C. D. , and Cohen, I. , 2014, “Using Origami Design Principles to Fold Reprogrammable Mechanical Metamaterials,” Science, 345(6197), pp. 647–650. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gao, W. , Ramani, K. , Cipra, R. J. , and Siegmund, T. , 2013, “Kinetogami: A Reconfigurable, Combinatorial, and Printable Sheet Folding,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(11), p. 111009. [CrossRef]
Mehta, A. M. , and Rus, D. , “An End-to-End System for Designing Mechanical Structures for Print-and-Fold Robots,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and automation (ICRA 2014), Hong Kong, May 31–June 7, pp. 1460–1465.
Baisch, A. T. , Sreetharan, P. , and Wood, R. J. , 2010, “Biologically-Inspired Locomotion of a 2g Hexapod Robot,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Taipei, Taiwan, Oct. 18–22, pp. 5360–5365.
Birkmeyer, P. , Peterson, K. , and Fearing, R. S. , 2009, “Dash: A Dynamic 16g Hexapedal Robot,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2009), St. Louis, MO, Oct. 10–15, pp. 2683–2689.
Soltero, D. E. , Julian, B. J. , Onal, C. D. , and Rus, D. , 2013, “A Lightweight Modular 12-DOF Print-and-Fold Hexapod,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Tokyo, Nov. 3–7, pp. 1465–1471.
Agheli, M. , Faal, S. G. , Chen, F. , Gong, H. , and Onal, C. D. , 2014, “Design and Fabrication of a Foldable Hexapod Robot Towards Experimental Swarm Applications,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Hong Kong, May 31–June 7, pp. 2971–2976.
Rubenstein, M. , Ahler, C. , and Nagpal, R. , 2012, “Kilobot: A Low Cost Scalable Robot System for Collective Behaviors,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), St. Paul, MN, May 14–18, pp. 3293–3298.
Siegwart, R. , Nourbakhsh, I. R. , and Scaramuzza, D. , 2011, Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Diegel, O. , Badve, A. , Bright, G. , Potgieter, J. , and Tlale, S. , 2002, “Improved Mecanum Wheel Design for Omni-Directional Robots,” Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation, Auckland, Nov. 27–29, pp. 117–121.
Howell, L. L. , 2001, Compliant Mechanisms, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ.
Norton, R. L. , 2004, Design of Machinery: An Introduction to the Synthesis and Analysis of Mechanisms and Machines, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Sung, C. , Demaine, E. D. , Demaine, M. L. , and Rus, D. , 2013, “Joining Unfoldings of 3D Surfaces,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-12692.
Wood, R. , Avadhanula, S. , Sahai, R. , Steltz, E. , and Fearing, R. , 2008, “Microrobot Design Using Fiber Reinforced Composites,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(5), p. 052304. [CrossRef]
Arora, J. , 2004, Introduction to Optimum Design, Academic Press, San Diego.
Agheli, M. , and Nestinger, S. S. , 2010, “Inverse Kinematics for Arbitrary Orientation of Hexapod Walking Robots With 3-DOF Leg Motion,” 15th International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTED) Conference on Robotics and Applications (RA 2010), Cambridge, MA, Nov. 1–3, Paper No. 706-093.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The basic structures used in the design of the foldable platforms. (a) The triangular beam and the corresponding crease pattern. The cut in the beam shows how the keys and slots are used to keep the beam from unfolding. (b) Folded joint that resembles the effect of a revolute joint. The hollow patterns are added to reduce the stiffness of the material at the joint. (c) Another method of forming a revolute joint using only a key and a slot. The cut in the beam shows the slot and the key that is locked inside it.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The typical structure and assembly process of an insertion lock

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Design process flow chart that represents the major foldable structure design steps

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Fully assembled 2DOF hexapod platform with on-board control electronics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

All the parameters associated with the kinematics of the 6-bar linkage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The front (positive peak on the right) and middle (positive peak on the left) feet velocities along the x-axis. The solid lines represent the state of a feet as being active. Blue and green lines indicate the velocities of the front and middle foot, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The crease pattern of the 2DOF foldable hexapod robot. Solid and dotted lines indicate cut and fold lines, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Snapshots of the foldable hexapod robot prototype during a linear forward locomotion experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Snapshots of the foldable hexapod robot prototype during an in-place turning experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Fully fabricated 3DOF hexapod platform with on-board control electronics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The 6-bar mechanism that is used as the feet of the 3DOF platform. The shading of the coupler curves represent the passage of time. The arrows indicate motion direction.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) The crease patterns of the different sections of one of the units that form the 3DOF platform and (b) a 3D illustration of the folded patterns

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Snapshots of the 3DOF hexapod platform going through a triangular path (depicted by arrows on the top row) by keeping its orientation (depicted by white lines) relatively consistent. Range of orientation changes due to imbalances in the body structure are depicted as an arc.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Snapshots of the 3DOF platform rotating about an axis close to its geometrical center

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The experiment result for different loading on the coupler point of the mechanism used in the design of the 3DOF hexapod robot

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The fully fabricated 18DOF platform with on-board control electronics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

The DOF of each leg of the 18DOF platform. The different sections of the leg are depicted in this figure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

The crease pattern for the units that create the hexagonal base of the 18DOF platform

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

The crease patterns for the coxa, femur, and tibia segments of each leg of the 18DOF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Experimental walking performance of the 18DOF hexapod platform in eight directions with 45 deg increments using a wave gait. The total distance traveled after 25 steps, in millimeters, is depicted for each direction.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In