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Research Papers

Cooperative Tool Path Planning for Wire Embedding on Additively Manufactured Curved Surfaces Using Robot Kinematics

[+] Author and Article Information
Chiyen Kim

Research Assistant Professor
W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: ckim6@utep.edu

David Espalin

Center Manager
W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: despalin@utep.edu

Alejandro Cuaron

W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: acuaron@miners.utep.edu

Mireya A. Perez

Industrial & Applications Manager
W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: maperez4@utep.edu

Mincheol Lee

Professor
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Pusan National University,
Busan 609-735, South Korea
e-mail: mclee@pusan.ac.kr

Eric MacDonald

Professor
W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: emac@utep.edu

Ryan B. Wicker

Professor
W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79968
e-mail: rwicker@utep.edu

Manuscript received August 15, 2014; final manuscript received December 19, 2014; published online February 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Aaron M. Dollar.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 7(2), 021003 (May 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: JMR-14-1218; doi: 10.1115/1.4029473 History: Received August 15, 2014; Revised December 19, 2014; Online February 27, 2015

To build multimaterial objects using additive manufacturing (AM), modifications to the majority of current conventional AM processes are required. Typically, deposition can only occur on flat surfaces and motion requires three degrees of freedom (DOFs) in a Cartesian coordinate system. In this work, metal wire and mesh were successfully embedded using ultrasonic energy on curved thermoplastic structures fabricated via the material extrusion AM technology named fused deposition modeling (FDM). The direct wire embedding process was executed by installing an ultrasonic horn on a three-axis prismatic machine and fixing an FDM-built curved part on a rotary stage. Since the part was nonplanar, a need existed to accurately place metal wire along the curved surface with positions defined by Cartesian and angular coordinates. Two additional DOFs were generated by moving both the build platform and tool head, and trajectory planning allowed for synchronized motion between the two motion systems.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Embedded copper wire in polycarbonate substrate; (b) polycarbonate AM device with embedded copper wiring on 2D surface; and (c) completed device with integrated solar panels as well as signal and power buses

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Fig. 2

Parametric surface and coordinates

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Fig. 3

D–H frame assignment

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Fig. 4

Cross-sectional diagram of the duct and polar coordinate

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Fig. 5

Surface in polar coordinates shown in the (a) schematic depiction of the surface and associated vectors, and (b) graph of the angle (α) of the surface tangent vector as a function of the polar angle

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Fig. 6

(a) Wire embedding system, and (b) and schematic of ultrasonic horn

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Fig. 7

Schematic of coordinate frame and joints of the CNC router r

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Fig. 8

Trajectories for the (a) rotary stage, (b) X-axis joint, and (c) Z-axis joint

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Fig. 9

Simulation test (time step: 11.1 s)

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Fig. 10

Consecutive operating sequences during the direct wire embedding process

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Fig. 11

Wire embedded on curved surface of a duct

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Fig. 12

Demonstrations of embedding on curved surface (a) diamond pattern antenna, and (b) copper mesh

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