Technical Brief

Comparative Analysis of a Redundant Pentapod Parallel Kinematic Machine

[+] Author and Article Information
Arta Alagheband

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road,
Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
e-mail: arta@mie.utoronto.ca

Masih Mahmoodi

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road,
Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada
e-mail: masih.mahmoodi@utoronto.ca

James K. Mills

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road,
Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
e-mail: mills@mie.utoronto.ca

Beno Benhabib

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road,
Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
e-mail: benhabib@mie.utoronto.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received May 16, 2014; final manuscript received October 23, 2014; published online December 4, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Philippe Wenger.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 7(3), 034502 (Aug 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: JMR-14-1112; doi: 10.1115/1.4028933 History: Received May 16, 2014; Revised October 23, 2014; Online December 04, 2014

Parallel kinematic mechanisms (PKMs) provide high stiffness and compact structures that are suitable for a large number of applications, including 5-axis milling. This paper presents a new pentapod-based PKM with an additional redundant degree-of-freedom (DOF) capable of reaching platform tilt angles of at least 90 deg over a large workspace. The proposed new PKM has a 6DOF 4 × SPRR + 1 × PSPR architecture. It is compared herein to Metrom® Pentapod as well as to several other pertinent PKMs in terms of workspace and dynamic stiffness. It is shown that the proposed mechanism can yield a tangibly larger workspace volume, when compared to those PKMs, while maintaining its high stiffness characteristics.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kong, X., and Gosselin, C., 2007, Type Synthesis of Parallel Mechanisms, Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, Vol. 33, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany.
Merlet, J.-P., 2006, Parallel Robots, 2nd ed., Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
Kim, J., Park, F. C., Ryu, S. J., Kim, J., Hwang, J. C., Park, C., and Iurascu, C. C., 2001, “Design and Analysis of a Redundantly Actuated Parallel Mechanism for Rapid Machining,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 17(4), pp. 423–434. [CrossRef]
Alizade, R. I., Tagiyev, N. R., and Duffy, J., 1994, “A Forward and Reverse Displacement Analysis of a 6-DOF In-Parallel Manipulator,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 29(1), pp. 115–124. [CrossRef]
Glozman, D., and Shoham, M., 2009, “Novel 6-DOF Parallel Manipulator With Large Workspace,” Robotica, 27(6), pp. 891–895. [CrossRef]
Azulay, H., Mahmoodi, M., Zhao, R., Mills, J. K., and Benhabib, B., 2014, “Comparative Analysis of a New 3 × PPRS Parallel Kinematic Mechanism,” Rob. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 30(4), pp. 369–378. [CrossRef]
Behi, F., 1988, “Kinematic Analysis for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom 3-PRPS Parallel Mehcanism,” IEEE J. Rob. Autom., 4(5), pp. 561–565. [CrossRef]
Tahmasebi, F., and Tsai, L. W., 1995, “On the Stiffness of a Novel Six-Degree-of-Freedom Parallel Manipulator,” J. Rob. Syst., 12(12), pp. 845–856. [CrossRef]
Ben-Horin, R., Shohram, M., and Djerassi, S., 1998, “Kinematics, Dynamics and Construction of a Planarly Actuated Parallel Robot,” Rob. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 14(2), pp. 163–172. [CrossRef]
Chen, C., Gayral, T., Caro, S., Chablat, D., Moroz, G., and Abeywardena, S., 2012, “A Six Degree of Freedom Epicyclic-Parallel Manipulator,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 4(4), p. 041011. [CrossRef]
Weck, M., and Staimer, D., 2002, “Parallel Kinematic Machine Tools—Current State and Future Potentials,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 51(2), pp. 671–683. [CrossRef]
Bär, G. F., and Weiß, G., 2006, “Kinematic Analysis of a Pentapod Robot,” J. Geom. Gr., 10(2), pp. 173–182.
Gogu, G., 2011, Structural Synthesis of Parallel Robots: Part 4: Other Topologies With Two and Three Degrees of Freedom, Vol. 183, Springer, New York.
Lu, Y., Hu, B., and Xu, J. Y., 2008, “Kinematics Analysis and Solution of Active/Passive Forces of a 4SPS + SPR Parallel Machine Tool,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 36(1–2), pp. 178–187. [CrossRef]
Fraunhofer IWS, 2014, “Pentapod Multifunctional System,” Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Dresden, Germany, accessed May 7, 2014, http://www.iws.fraunhofer.de/en/business_fields/joining/special_joining_technologies/equipment/pentapod_multifunctional_system.html
Zhang, T., Minami, M., Yasukura, O., and Song, W., 2011, “Reconfiguration Manipulability Analyses for Redundant Robots,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 5(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Finistauri, A. D., and Xi, F. J., 2013, “Reconfiguration Analysis of a Fully Reconfigurable Parallel Robot,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 5(4), p. 041002. [CrossRef]
Neugebauer, R., Schwaar, M., Ihlenfeldt, St., Pritschow, G., Eppler, C., and Garber, T., 2002, “New Approaches to Machine Structures to Overcome the Limits of Classical Parallel Structures,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol., 51(1), pp. 293–296. [CrossRef]
Moosavian, A., and Xi, F. J., 2014, “Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable Parallel Robots With Enhanced Stiffness,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 77, pp. 92–110. [CrossRef]
Kotlaraski, J., Heimann, B., and Ortmaier, T., 2012, “Influence of Kinematic Redundancy on the Singularity-Free Workspace of Parallel Kinematic Machines,” Front. Mech. Eng., 7(2), pp. 120–134. [CrossRef]
Ebrahimi, I., Carretero, J. A., and Boudreau, R., 2007, “3-PR¯RR Redundant Planar Parallel Manipulator: Inverse Displacement, Workspace, and Singularity Analyses,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 42(8), pp. 1007–1016. [CrossRef]
Müller, A., 2008, “Redundant Actuation of Parallel Manipulators,” Parallel Manipulators, Towards New Applications, I-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, Austria, pp. 87–108.
Chakarov, D., 2004, “Study of the Antagonistic Stiffness of Parallel Manipulators With Actuation Redundancy,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 39(6), pp. 583–601. [CrossRef]
Nokleby, S. B., Fisher, R., and Podhorodeski, R. P., 2005, “Force Capabilities of Redundantly-Actuated Parallel Manipulators,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 40(5), pp. 578–599. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. J., Wu, C., and Wang, J., 2012, “A New Approach for Singularity Analysis and Closeness Measurement to Singularities of Parallel Manipulators,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 4(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Zlatanov, D., Fenton, R. G., and Benhabib, B., 1994, “Analysis of the Instantaneous Kinematics and Singular Configurations of Hybrid-Chain Manipulators,” 23rd ASME Biennial Mechanisms Conference, Minneapolis, MN, Sept. 11–14, pp. 467–476.
Zlatanov, D., Fenton, R. G., and Benhabib, B., 1998, “Identification and Classification of the Singular Configurations of Mechanisms,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 33(6), pp. 743–760. [CrossRef]
Zheng, K. J., Gao, J. S., and Zhao, Y. S., 2005, “Path Control Algorithms of a Novel 5-DOF Parallel Machine Tool,” IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Niagara Falls, ON, Canada, July 29–Aug. 1, pp. 1381–1385. [CrossRef]
Weiyang, L., Li, B., Yang, X., and Zhang, D., 2013, “Modelling and Control of Inverse Dynamics for a 5-DOF Parallel Kinematic Polishing Machine,” Int. J. Adv. Rob. Syst., 10, pp. 1–21. [CrossRef]
Gallet, M., Nawratil, G., and Schicho, J., 2014, “Bond Theory for Pentapods and Hexapods,” J. Geom., epub. [CrossRef]
Borràs, J., Thomas, F., and Torras, C., 2011, “Architectural Singularities of a Class of Pentapods,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 46(8), pp. 1107–1120. [CrossRef]
Borràs, J., Thomas, F., and Torras, C., 2011, “Singularity-Invarient Families of Line-Plane 5-SPU Platforms,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 27(5), pp. 837–848. [CrossRef]
Gao, F., Peng, B., Zhao, H., and Li, W., 2006, “A Novel 5-DOF Fully Parallel Kinematic Machine Tool,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 31(1–2), pp. 201–207. [CrossRef]
Suh, S.-H., Lee, E.-S., and Jung, S.-Y., 1998, “Error Modeling and Measurement for the Rotary Table of Five-Axis Machine Tools,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 14(9), pp. 656–663. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y., Yang, J., and Zhang, K., 2013, “Geometric Error Measurement and Compensation for Rotary Table of Five-Axis Machine Tool With Double Ballbar,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 65(1–4), pp. 275–281. [CrossRef]
Hartenberg, R. S., and Denavit, J., 1964, Kinematic Synthesis of Linkages, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Bonev, I. A., and Ryu, J., 2001, “A New Approach to Orientation Workspace Analysis of 6-DOF Parallel Manipulators,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 36(1), pp. 15–28. [CrossRef]
Merlet, J.-P., 1996, “Redundant Parallel Manipulators,” Lab. Rob. Autom., 8(1), pp. 17–24. [CrossRef]
Zhang, D., 2010, Parallel Robotic Machine Tools, Springer, New York.
Yue, Y., Gao, F., Zhao, X., and Ge, Q. J., 2009, “Relationship Among Input-Force, Payload, Stiffness, and Displacement of a 6-DOF Perpendicular Parallel Micromanipulator,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 2(1), p. 011007. [CrossRef]
Mahmoodi, M., Mills, J. K., and Benhabib, B., 2013, “Configuration-Dependency of Structural Vibration Response Amplitudes in Parallel Kinematic Mechanisms,” 2nd International Conference on Virtual Machining Process Technology (VMPT), Hamilton, ON, Canada, May 13–17.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Metrom Pentapod model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) The UofT pentapod and (b) its kinematic schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Tilt angle definition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Tilt angle versus actuator travel range

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

90 deg tilt angle over 8 mm radius hemispherical surface for the UofT pentapod (a) without and (b) with a sixth actuator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Maximum platform tilt angle for the 6DOF mechanisms used for comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Projection of hemispherical surface onto the xy plane for (a) the Metrom Pentapod and (b) the UofT pentapod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

FE analysis for deformation in xx direction




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In